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Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0093
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of Gasoline Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Igniter at Different Speeds in Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0105
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for an otherwise standard gasoline spark ignition engine. TJI works by injecting chemically active turbulent jets to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. The main advantage of TJI is its ability to ignite and burn, completely, very lean fuel/air mixtures in the main chamber charge. This occurs with a very fast burn rate due to the widely distributed ignition sites that consume the main charge rapidly. Rapid combustion of lean mixtures leads to lower exhaust emissions due to more complete combustion at a lower temperature. For this research, the effectiveness of the Mahle TJI system on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder spark engine fueled with gasoline at different speeds was investigated. The combustion and heat release process was analyzed and the exhaust emissions were measured.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of advanced valve timing strategies for efficient spark ignition ethanol operation

2018-09-03
2018-36-0147
Biofuels for internal combustion engines have been explored worldwide to reduce fossil fuel usage and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, increased spark ignition (SI) engine part load efficiency has been demanded by recent emission legislation for the same purposes. Considering theses aspects, this study investigates the use of non-conventional valve timing strategies in a 0.35 L four valve single cylinder test engine operating with anhydrous ethanol. The engine was equipped with a fully variable valve train system enabling independent valve timing and lift control. Conventional spark ignition operation with throttle load control (tSI) was tested as baseline. A second valve strategy using dethrottling via early intake valve closure (EIVC) was tested to access the possible pumping loss reduction. Two other strategies, negative valve overlap (NVO) and exhaust rebreathing (ER), were investigated as hot residual gas trapping strategies using EIVC as dethrottling technique.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison between Stratified Flame Ignition and Micro Flame Ignition in a Gasoline SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0737
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to providing simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and NOx emissions in a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, combustion mode switching between CAI and spark ignition (SI) combustion is essential to cover the overall operational range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research has shown that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion has the potential to control the ignition timing and heat release process during both steady state and transient operations. However, it was found that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is often characterized with large cycle-to-cycle variations, due to the flame instability at high dilution conditions.
Technical Paper

The Upper-Load Extension of a Boosted Direct Injection Poppet Valve Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2339
Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper

Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2174
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions. This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Evaluations of Scavenge Port Designs for a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine by 3D CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1049
The 2-stroke engine has great potential for aggressive engine downsizing due to its double firing frequency which allows lower indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and peak in-cylinder pressure with the same output toque compared to the 4-stroke engine. With the aid of new engine technologies, e.g. direct injection, boost and variable valve trains, the drawbacks of traditional 2-stroke engine, e.g. low durability and high emissions, can be resolved in a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) engine. Compared to the loop-flow or cross-flow engines, the BUSDIG engine, where intake ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head, can achieve excellent scavenging performance and be operated with high boost.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1818
In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.
Technical Paper

Synergy between Boost and Valve Timings in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1262
Gasoline engine downsizing has become a popular and effective approach to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars. This is typically achieved in the form of a boosted direct injection gasoline engine, which are typically equipped with variable valve timing (VVT) devices on the intake and/or exhaust valves. This paper describes the synergies between valve timings and boost based on experimental investigations in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine with variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust cams. Two cam profiles have been tested to realize Miller cycle and compared with the standard camshaft. One cam features a long opening duration and standard valve lift for Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and the other cam has a short opening duration and low valve lift for Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC).
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Shapes and Fuel Injection Strategies on In-Cylinder Conditions in a PFI/GDI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2670
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of a Downsized 2-Stroke Uniflow Engine

2014-10-01
2014-01-9051
In order to optimize the 2-stroke uniflow engine performance on vehicle applications, numerical analysis has been introduced, 3D CFD model has been built for the optimization of intake charge organization. The scavenging process was investigated and the intake port design details were improved. Then the output data from 3D CFD calculation were applied to a 1D engine model to process the analysis on engine performance. The boost system optimization of the engine has been carried out also. Furthermore, a vehicle model was also set up to investigate the engine in-vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1393
In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Intake Port and Pent-Roof Structures on Reversed Tumble Generation of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1130
In order to minimize short-circuiting of the intake charge in the poppet-valved 2-stroke engine, measures are taken to generate reversed tumble in the cylinder. In this study, five different types of intake ports and three types of pent-roof geometries were designed and analysed of their ability to generate and maintain reversed tumble flows by means of CFD simulation for their intake processes on a steady flow rig. Their flow characteristics were then assessed and compared to that of the vertical top-entry ports. Results show that the side-entry port designs can achieve comparatively high tumble intensity. The addition of flow deflectors inside the side-entry ports does not have much effect on the reversed tumble ratio. The top-entry ports have the highest flow coefficient among all the intake ports examined as well as producing strong reversed tumble. It is also found that the pent-roof at a wider angle helps to strengthen the tumble intensity due to increased air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder CO2 Measurements of Residual Gas in a GDI Engine for Model Validation and HCCI Combustion Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1654
An accurate prediction of residual burned gas within the combustion chamber is important to quantify for development of modern engines, especially so for those with internally recycled burned gases and HCCI operations. A wall-guided GDI engine has been fitted with an in-cylinder sampling probe attached to a fast response NDIR analyser to measure in-situ the cycle-by-cycle trapped residual gas. The results have been compared with a model which predicts the trapped residual gas fraction based on heat release rate calculated from the cylinder pressure data and other factors. The inlet and exhaust valve timings were varied to produce a range of Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) conditions and the results were compared between the actual measured CO2 values and those predicted by the model, which shows that the RGF value derived from the exhaust gas temperature and pressure measurement at EVC is consistently overestimated by 5% over those based on the CO2 concentrations.
Technical Paper

Wall Temperature Effect on SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Progress in a Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1662
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to investigate the effect of the thermal boundary condition on the hybrid combustion, the experiments with different coolant temperatures are performed to adjust the chamber wall temperature in a gasoline engine. The experimental results indicate that increasing wall temperature would advance the combustion phasing, enlarge the peak heat release rate and shorten the combustion duration. While the capacity of the wall temperature effect on the hybrid combustion characteristics are more notable in the auto-ignition dominated hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
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