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Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Methanol and Diesel Direct Injection HD Single Cylinder Engine Tests

2018-04-03
2018-01-0259
Laws concerning emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are needed to satisfy these new requirements and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives can be to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). A suitable candidate is methanol. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the possible advantages of combusting methanol in a heavy duty Diesel engine. Those are, among others, lower particulate emissions and thereby bypassing the NOx-soot trade-off. Because of methanol’s poor auto-ignition properties, Diesel was used as an igniting sources and both fuels were separately direct injected. Therefore, two separate standard common rail Diesel injection systems were used together with a newly designed cylinder head and adapted injection nozzles.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Ethanol Injection under Diesel-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0857
Laws concerning to emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are therefore needed to satisfy these new legal requirements and reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives is to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are more sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gas, particulates and NOx. As a first step towards the development of a direct injected dual fuel engine using diesel fuel and renewable alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, we have studied ethanol (E100) sprays generated with a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. The experiments were performed at a gas density of ∼27kg/m3 at ∼550 °C and ∼60 bar, representing typical operating conditions for a HD engine at low loads.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Use of Butanol or Octanol Blends in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2491
Global warming driven by “greenhouse gas” emissions is an increasingly serious concern of both the public and legislators. A potentially potent way to reduce these emissions and conserve fossil fuel resources is to use n-butanol, iso-butanol or octanol (2-ethylhexanol) from renewable sources as alternative fuels in diesel engines. The effects of adding these substances to diesel fuel were therefore tested in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine operated using factory settings. These alcohols have better calorific values, flash points, lubricity, cetane numbers and solubility in diesel than shorter-chain alcohols. However, they have lower cetane numbers than diesel, so either hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to the diesel-alcohol mixtures to generate blends with the same Cetane Number (CN) as diesel.
Technical Paper

Optimised Neat Ethanol Engine with Stratified Combustion at Part-load; Particle Emissions, Efficiency and Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0254
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion and Emissions Formation in a Heavy Duty DME Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0156
When using dimethyl ether (DME) to fuel diesel engines at high load and speed, applying high amounts of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to limit NOX emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are generally high. To address this issue, the combustion and emission processes in such engines were analyzed with the three-dimensional CFD KIVA3V code. The combustion sub-mechanism (76 species and 375 reactions) was validated by comparing simulated ignition delays and flame velocities to reference data under diesel-like and atmospheric conditions, respectively. In addition, simulated and experimentally determined rate of heat release (RoHR) curves and emission data were compared for a heavy-duty single-cylinder DME engine (displaced volume, 2.02 liters) with DME-adapted piston and nozzle geometries. The simulated RoHR curves captured the main features of the experimentally measured curves, but deviated in the premixed (higher peak) and late combustion phases (too high).
Journal Article

Valve Profile Adaptation, Stratification, Boosting and 2-Stroke Strategies for Raising Loads of Gasoline HCCI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1108
The development of high efficiency powertrains is a key objective for car manufacturers. One approach for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines is based on homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI, which provides higher efficiency than conventional strategies. However, HCCI is only currently viable at relatively low loads, primarily because at high loads it involves rapid combustion that generates pressure oscillations in the cylinder (ringing), and partly because it gives rise to relatively high NOX emissions. This paper describes studies aimed at increasing the viability of HCCI combustion at higher loads by using fully flexible valve trains, direct injection with charge stratification (SCCI), and intake air boosting. These approaches were complemented by using EGR to control NOX emissions by stoichiometric operation, which enables the use of a three-way catalyst.
Technical Paper

Evaporation of Gasoline-Like and Ethanol-Based Fuels in Hollow-Cone Sprays Investigated by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Mie Scattering

2011-08-30
2011-01-1889
The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Engine Settings on Combustion Parameters, Emissions, Soot and Temperature Distributions in Low Temperature Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch and Swedish Diesel Fuels

2009-11-02
2009-01-2787
It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion and Diesel-Ethanol Blends

2009-11-02
2009-01-2695
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to compare the effects of fuel composition on combustion parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in engine tests and simulations with five fuels: a Diesel-water emulsion, a Diesel-ethanol blend, a Diesel-ethanol blend with EHN (cetane number improver), a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and an ultra-low sulfur content Diesel. The engine used in the experiments was a light duty, single cylinder, direct injection, common rail Diesel engine equipped with a cylinder head and piston from a Volvo NED5 engine. In tests with each fuel the engine was operated at two load points (3 bar IMEP and 10 bar IMEP), and a pilot-main fuel injection strategy was applied under both load conditions. Data were also obtained from 3-D CFD simulations, using the KIVA code, to compare to the experimental results and to further analyze the effects of water and ethanol on combustion.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0841
DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Journal Article

Stratified Cold Start Sprays of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

2009-04-20
2009-01-1496
Gasoline and gasoline-ethanol sprays from an outward-opening piezo-injector were studied in a constant volume/pressure chamber using high-speed imaging and phase doppler anemometry (PDA) under stratified cold start conditions corresponding to a vehicle ambient temperature of 243 K (−30°C/−22°F); in-cylinder air pressure of 5 bar, air temperature of 350 K (−30°C/−22°F) and fuel temperature of 243 K. The effects of varying in-cylinder pressure and temperature, fuel injection pressure and fuel temperature on the formation of gasoline, E75 and pure ethanol sprays were investigated. The results indicate that fuel composition affects spray behaviour, but less than expected. Furthermore, varying the temperature of the fuel or the air surrounding the spray also had minor effects. As expected, the fuel injection pressure was found to have the strongest influence on spray formation under stratified conditions.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - The Influence of Methanol and Water in the Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1391
In the study reported here the combustion and emission characteristics of a heavy duty six-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME) of chemical grade and DME with small and varying amounts of methanol and/or water were experimentally investigated. In addition, the size distribution of emitted particles and selected unregulated emissions were sampled. Methanol and water additions had a very limited effect on emissions, but affected the combustion processes in a way that accentuated the premixed combustion and thus caused more energy to be released early in the cycle. At high load, however, the effect was reversed, due to the lack of distinct premixed combustion. The results confirm that DME combustion does not generate any accumulation mode particles. The particles that are detected are smaller than the soot size range and do not occur in greater numbers than those from a diesel engine in the corresponding size range.
Technical Paper

Optical Studies of Spray Development and Combustion Characterization of Oxygenated and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1393
Optical studies of combusting diesel sprays were done on three different alternative liquid fuels and compared to Swedish environmental class 1 diesel fuel (MK1). The alternative fuels were Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester (RME), Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature spray rig under conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct-injected diesel engine prior to injection. High speed shadowgraphs were acquired to measure the penetration of the continuous liquid phase, droplets and ligaments, and vapor penetration. Flame temperatures and relative soot concentrations were measured by emission based, line-of-sight, optical methods. A comparison between previous engine tests and spray rig experiments was conducted in order to provide a deeper explanation of the combustion phenomena in the engine tests.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0426
Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Diesel Engine - an Experimental Study

2007-10-30
2007-01-4167
Combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether, DME, have been investigated experimentally, in a heavy duty single cylinder engine equipped with an adapted common rail fuel injection system, and the effects of varying injection timing, rail pressure and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion and emission parameters. The results show that DME combustion does not produce soot and with the use of exhaust gas recirculation NOX emissions can also be reduced to very low levels. However, high injection pressure and/or a DME adopted combustion system is required to improve the mixing process and thus reduce the combustion duration and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch, RME and Conventional Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4009
This investigation includes a comparison of two Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuels derived from natural gas and a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) fuel with Swedish low sulfur Diesel in terms of emissions levels, fuel consumption and combustion parameters. The engine used in the study was an AVL single cylinder heavy-duty engine, equipped with a cylinder head of a Volvo D12 engine. Two loads (25% and 100%) were investigated at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The engine was calibrated to operate in different levels of EGR and with variable injections timings. A design of experiments was constructed to investigate the effects of these variables, and to identify optimal settings. The results showed that the soot emissions yielded by FT and RME fuels are up to 40 and 80 percent lower than those yielded by the Swedish Diesel. In addition the FT fuel gave slightly lower, and the RME significant higher NOx emissions than the Swedish Diesel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Direct Injection of Urea as NOx Reduction Method for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0909
The effect of ammoniac deoxidizing agent (Urea) on the reduction of NOx produced in the Diesel engine was investigated numerically. Urea desolved in water was directly injected into the engine cylinder during the expansion stroke. The NOx deoxidizing process was described using a simplified chemical kinetic model coupled with the comprehensive kinetics of Diesel oil surrogate combustion. If the technology of DWI (Direct Water Injection) with the later injection timing is supposed to be used, the deoxidizing reactants could be delivered in a controlled amount directly into the flame plume zones, where NOx are forming. Numerical simulations for the Isotta Fraschini DI Diesel engine are carried out using the KIVA-3V code, modified to account for the “co-fuel” injection and reaction with combustion products. The results showed that the amount of NOx could be substantially reduced up to 80% with the injection timing and the fraction of Urea in the solution optimized.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0030
Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

2007-01-23
2007-01-0009
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion with Ultra-Low NOx and SOOT Emissions - A Comparison Between Experimental Data and CFD Simulations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0380
Experiments were conducted with a single cylinder heavy duty research engine, based on the geometry of a Volvo Powertrain D12C production engine. For these tests the engine was configured with a low compression ratio, low swirl, common rail fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. The combustion process was visualized by video via an inserted endoscope. From the resulting images temperatures were evaluated with the two-color method. In addition, the combustion and emission formation were simulated using the multiple flamelet concept implemented in the commercial CFD code STAR-CD. The models used in this paper are considered state-of-the-art. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities offered by combining several methods in the evaluation of novel engine concepts. Therefore, results from the optical measurements, the CFD simulations and global emission experimental data were compared.
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