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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Hybrid Vehicle Model for Energetic Analyses on Different Powertrain Architectures

2019-09-09
2019-24-0064
In the global quest for preventing fossil fuel depletion and reducing air pollution, hybridization plays a fundamental role to achieve cleaner and more fuel-efficient automotive propulsion systems. While hybrid powertrains offer many opportunities, they also present new developmental challenges. Due to the many variants and possible architectures, development issues, such as the definition of powertrain concepts and the optimization of operating strategies, are becoming more and more important. The paper presents model-based fuel economy analyses of different hybrid vehicle configurations, depending on the position of the electric motor generator (EMG). The analyses are intended to support the design of powertrain architecture and the components sizing, depending on the driving scenario, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of a Catalytic DPF

2019-04-02
2019-01-0985
1 The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emissions regulations for automotive engines. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies. This paper deals with the development of a control oriented model of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading for automotive Diesel engines. The model is intended to be used for the real-time management of the regeneration process, depending on back-pressure and thermal state.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Cruise Controllers through Finite-Horizon Driving Mission Optimization for Passenger Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1180
In the last few years, several studies have proved the benefits of exploiting information about the road topography ahead of the vehicle to adapt vehicle cruising for fuel consumption reduction. Recent technologies have brought on-board more road information enabling the optimization of the driving profile for fuel economy improvement. In the present paper, a cruise controller able to lowering vehicle fuel consumption taking into account the characteristics of the road the vehicle is traveling through is presented. The velocity profile is obtained by minimizing via discrete dynamic programming the energy spent to move the vehicle. In order to further enhance vehicle fuel efficiency, also the gear shifting schedule is optimized, allowing to avoid useless gear shifts and choose the most suitable gear to match current road load and keeping the engine in its maximum efficiency range. Despite the optimality of the solution provided, dynamic programming entails high computational time.
Technical Paper

Development of a Cruise Controller Based on Current Road Load Information with Integrated Control of Variable Velocity Set-Point and Gear Shifting

2017-03-28
2017-01-0089
Road topography has a remarkable impact on vehicle fuel consumption for both passenger and heavy duty vehicles. In addition, erroneous or non-optimized scheduling of both velocity set-point and gear shifting may be detrimental for fuel consumption and performance. Recent technologies have made road data, such as elevation or slope, either available or measurable on board, thus making possible the exploitation of this additional information in innovative controllers. The aim of this paper is the development of a smart, fuel-economy oriented controller adapting cruising speed and engaged gear to current road load (i.e. local slope). Unlike traditional cruise controllers, the velocity set-point is not constant, but it is set by applying a mathematical transformation of the current slope, accounting for the mission time duration as well.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery in Automotive Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0207
In the last years, the research effort of the automotive industry has been mainly focused on the reduction of CO2 and pollutants emissions. In this scenario, concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, Waste Heat Recovery technologies have been proposed. These latter include Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Electric Turbo-Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty applications but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for passenger cars. The paper deals with modeling of ORC power plant for simulation analyses aimed at evaluating the opportunities and challenges of its application for the waste heat recovery in a compact car, powered by a turbocharged SI engine.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Engine Thermal State by in-Cylinder Pressure Measurement in Automotive Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1623
International regulations continuously restrict the standards for the exhaust emissions from automotive engines. In order to comply with these requirements, innovative control and diagnosis systems are needed. In this scenario the application of methodologies based on the in-cylinder pressure measurement finds widespread applications. Indeed, almost all engine thermodynamic variables useful for either control or diagnosis can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure. Apart for improving the control accuracy, the availability of the in-cylinder pressure signal might also allow reducing the number of existing sensors on-board, thus lowering the equipment costs and the engine wiring complexity. The paper focuses on the detection of the engine thermal state, which is fundamental to achieve suitable control of engine combustion and after-treatment devices.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Powertrain Model to Evaluate the Benefits of Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) in Reducing CO2 Emissions from Small Diesel Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-1650
In the last years the automotive industry has been involved in the development and implementation of CO2 reducing concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, waste heat recovery technologies. These latter include ThermoElectric Generator (TEG), Rankine cycle and Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty application but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for the automotive industry. The paper deals with the analysis of opportunities and challenges of the Electric Turbo Compound for automotive light-duty engines. In the ETC concept the turbine-compressor shaft is connected to an electric machine, which can work either as generator or motor. In the former case the power can satisfy the vehicle electrical demand to drive the auxiliaries or stored in the batteries.
Journal Article

Modeling Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery via Thermo Electric Generators for Fuel Economy Improvement and CO2 Reduction in Small Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-0663
This paper deals with modeling and analysis of the integration of ThermoElectric generators (TEG) into a conventional vehicle, specifically aimed at recovering waste heat from exhaust gases. The model is based on existing and commercial thermoelectric materials, specifically Bi2Te3, having ZTs not exceeding 1 and efficiency below 5%, but a trade-off between cost and performance that would be acceptable for automotive applications. TEGs operate on the principle of thermoelectric energy conversion via Seebeck effect, utilizing thermal gradients to generate electric current, with exhaust gases at the hot side and coolant at the cold side. In the simulated configuration the TEG converters are interfaced with the battery/alternator supporting the operation of the vehicle, reducing the energy consumption due to electrical accessories and HVAC.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Parameters for a Heavy-Duty CNG Engine via Co-Simulation Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0704
Internal combustion engines for vehicle propulsion are more and more sophisticated due to increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In case of heavy-duty engines, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fueling coupled with Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) can help in meeting the imposed emission limits and preventing from thermal stress of engine components. To cope with the new issues associated with the more complex hardware and to improve powertrain performance and reliability and after-treatment efficiency, the engine control strategies must be reformulated. The paper focuses on the steady-state optimization of control parameters for a heavy-duty engine fueled by CNG and equipped with turbocharger and EGR. The optimization analysis is carried out to design EGR, spark timing and wastegate control, aimed at increasing fuel economy while reducing in-cylinder temperature to prevent from thermal stress of engine components.
Journal Article

Rule-Based Optimization of Intermittent ICE Scheduling on a Hybrid Solar Vehicle

2009-09-13
2009-24-0067
In the paper, a rule-based (RB) control strategy is proposed to optimize on-board energy management on a Hybrid Solar Vehicle (HSV) with series structure. Previous studies have shown the promising benefits of such vehicles in urban driving in terms of fuel economy and carbon dioxide reduction, and that economic feasibility could be achieved in a near future. The control architecture consists of two main loops: one external, which determines final battery state of charge (SOC) as function of expected solar contribution during next parking phase, and the second internal, whose aim is to define optimal ICE- EG power trajectory and SOC oscillation around the final value, as addressed by the first loop. In order to maximize the fuel savings achievable by a series architecture, an intermittent ICE scheduling is adopted for HSV. Therefore, the second loop yields the average power at which the ICE is operated as function of the average values of traction power demand and solar power.
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