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Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Nb-Clad Stainless Steel Sheets

2009-04-20
2009-01-1393
Because niobium-clad 304L stainless steel sheets are considered for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, their mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are important to be examined. As-rolled and annealed specimens were tested in tension, bending and flattening. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism were investigated. Micrographic analyses of bent and flattened specimens showed that the as-rolled specimens have limited ductility and that the annealed specimens can develop an intermetallic layer of thickness of a few microns. The annealed specimens failed due to the breakage of intermetallic layer causing localized necking and the subsequent failure of Nb layer. The springback angles of the as-rolled and annealed specimens were also obtained from guided-bend tests.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0028
Fatigue behavior of laser welds in lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels is investigated based on a fatigue crack growth model. Fatigue experiments of laser welded lap-shear specimens were conducted. Analytical global stress intensity factor solutions are developed and compared with finite element computational results. A fatigue crack growth model based on the analytical local stress intensity factor solutions of kinked cracks and the Paris law for crack growth is then adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the laser welds under cyclic loading conditions. The estimated fatigue lives are compared with the experimental results. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the fatigue crack growth model are slightly longer than the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs of Different Cell Geometries Under Compression Dominant Combined Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0122
The influence of cell geometries on the quasi-static crush behaviors of aluminum honeycombs is explored by experiments. Aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens with different in-plane orientation angles, cell wall thicknesses and cell sizes were tested under compression dominant combined loads. The load histories of these specimens were obtained. A quadratic and a linear phenomenological yield criteria are used to fit the obtained experimental normal crush and shear strengths for three types of honeycomb specimens under compression dominant combined loads. The quadratic yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for two types of honeycomb specimens with low relative densities. The linear yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for one type of honeycomb specimens with a high relative density.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Failures of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets Under Cyclic Loading Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1207
Fatigue failures of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6111-T4 sheets under cyclic loading conditions are investigated in this paper. The paths of fatigue cracks near the spot friction welds are first discussed. A fatigue crack growth model based on the Paris law for crack propagation and the global and local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks is then adopted to predict the fatigue lives of these spot friction welds. The global stress intensity factors and the local stress intensity factors based on the recent published works for resistance spot welds in lap-shear specimens are used to estimate the local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks with experimentally determined kink angles. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the Paris law and the local stress intensity factors as functions of the kink length agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Honeycomb Specimens Under Combined Compressive and Shear Displacement Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0360
The quasi-static crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under non-proportional compression dominant combined loads is investigated by experiments. Compression dominant combined loads and pure compressive loads were applied in different sequences to induce non-proportional combined loads. The experimental results show that the normal crush and shear strengths in combined loading regions and the normal crush strengths in pure compressive loading regions of the non-proportional combined loads are quite consistent with the existing phenomenological yield criterion based on the experimental normal crush and shear strengths under proportional combined loads. The experimental results indicate that the sequence of loading paths for the non-proportional combined loads does not affect the crush strengths of honeycomb specimens.
Technical Paper

Fracture and Fatigue Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1247
In this paper, fracture and fatigue mechanisms of spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations. Optical and scanning electron micrographs of these spot friction welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are examined. The micrographs show the fracture and fatigue mechanisms of spot friction welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions. The experimental observations indicate that the fracture mechanisms depend on the microstructure and geometry of welds under quasi-static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading conditions, the fatigue mechanisms depend not only on the microstructure and geometry of welds but also on the load amplitudes.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 5754 Sheets

2005-04-11
2005-01-1256
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds (SFW) in aluminum 5754 lap-shear specimens were investigated. In order to study the effect of tool geometry on the joint strength of spot friction welds, a concave tool and a flat tool were used. In order to understand the effect of tool penetration depth on the joint strength, spot friction welds were prepared with two different penetration depths for each tool. The results indicated that the concave tool produced slightly higher joint strength than the flat tool. The joint strength did not change for the two depths for the flat tool whereas the joint strength slightly increases as the penetration depth increases for the concave tool. The experimental results show that the failure mechanism is necking and shearing for the spot friction welds made by both tools. The failure was initiated and fractured through the upper sheet under the shoulder indentation near the crack tip.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fatigue Lives of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets Based on Fracture Mechanics

2005-04-11
2005-01-1250
The fatigue lives of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6111-T4 sheets are investigated here. The paths of fatigue cracks near spot friction welds are first discussed. A fatigue crack growth model based on the Paris law for crack propagation and the local stress intensity factors for kinked cracks is then adopted to predict the fatigue lives of spot friction welds. The global and local stress intensity factors based on a recent work of Wang and Pan for resistance spot welds in lap-shear specimens are used to estimate the local stress intensity factors of kinked cracks with experimentally determined kink angles. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the Paris law and the local stress intensity factors as functions of the kink length agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effects of Impact Velocity on Crush Behavior of Honeycomb Specimens

2004-03-08
2004-01-0245
Effects of impact velocity on the crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens are investigated by experiments. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform dynamic crush tests. A test fixture was designed such that inclined loads can be applied to honeycomb specimens in dynamic crush tests. The results of dynamic crush tests indicate that the effects of impact velocity on the normal and inclined crush strengths are significant. The trends of the inclined crush strengths for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of impact velocity are very similar to that of the normal crush strength. Experimental results show similar progressive folding mechanisms for honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. Under inclined loads, the inclined stacking patterns were observed. The inclined stacking patterns are due to the asymmetric locations of the horizontal plastic hinge lines.
Technical Paper

Microstructures and Failure Mechanisms of Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets

2004-03-08
2004-01-1330
Microstructures and failure mechanisms of spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens are investigated based on experimental observations. Two types of tools, a Type I tool with a flat tool shoulder and a Type II tool with a concave tool shoulder, were used to join the aluminum sheets with different processing parameters. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot friction welds made by the two types of tools in lap-shear specimens before and after failure are examined. These spot friction welds show the failure mode of nugget pullout under lap-shear loading conditions. However, the micrographs show different microstructures and failure mechanisms for spot friction welds made by the two types of tools with different processing parameters.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms of Sandwich Specimens With Epoxy Foam Cores Under Bending Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0327
Sandwich specimens with DP590 steel face sheets and structural epoxy foam cores are investigated under three-point bending conditions. Experimental results indicate that the maximum loads correspond to extensive cracking in the foam cores. Finite element simulations of the bending tests are also performed to understand the failure mechanisms of the epoxy foams. In these simulations, the plastic behavior of the steel face sheets is modeled by the Mises yield criterion with consideration of plastic strain hardening. A pressure sensitive yield criterion is used to model the plastic behavior of the epoxy foam cores. The epoxy foams are idealized to follow an elastic perfectly plastic behavior. The simulation results indicate that the load-displacement responses of some sandwich specimens agree with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Crush Strength of Aluminum 5052-H38 Honeycomb Materials under Combined Compressive and Shear Loads

2003-03-03
2003-01-0331
The crush strength of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb materials under combined compressive and shear loads are investigated here. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the assumptions of the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge line and the ruptures of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied. In the calculation of the crush strength, two correction factors due to non-associated plastic flow and different rupture modes are considered.
Technical Paper

Influence of Shear Loads on Crush of Honeycomb Materials

2002-03-04
2002-01-0683
We conduct static experiments to investigate the influence of shear stress on the crush behavior of honeycomb materials. The aluminum honeycomb materials selected in this investigation are orthotropic due to their manufacturing processes. A test fixture and honeycomb specimens are designed such that combined compressive and shear loads along the strongest material symmetry axis can be controlled and applied accurately. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the rupture of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

2001-03-05
2001-01-0091
In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
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