ES2 Neck Injury Assessment Reference Values for Lateral Loading in Side Facing Seats
Injury assessment reference values (IARV) predicting neck injuries are currently not available for side facing seated aircraft passengers in crash conditions. The aircraft impact scenario results in inertial loading of the head and neck, a condition known to be inherently different from common automotive side impact conditions as crash pulse and seating configurations are different. The objective of this study is to develop these IARV for the European Side Impact Dummy-2 (ES-2) previously selected by the US-FAA as the most suitable ATD for evaluating side facing aircraft seats. The development of the IARV is an extended analysis of previously published PMHS neck loads by identifying the most likely injury scenarios, comparing head-neck kinematics and neck loads of the ES2 versus PMHS, and development of injury risk curves for the ES2. The ES2 showed a similar kinematic response as the PMHS, particularly during the loading phase.