# Search Results

Viewing 1 to 13 of 13
Technical Paper

### Mathematical Modeling of Multiple Evaporator / Multiple Condenser Loop Heat Pipes and Test Data Verification

2007-07-09
2007-01-3235
Loop Heat Pipes have proven as reliable heat transports for spacecraft thermal control systems. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory recently proposed a miniature dual pump/condenser LHP system for use in future Mars missions. Results of a ground test program indicated that the dual pump/condenser LHP performed very well, but in a complicated manner. No analytical model was available to facilitate the design/analysis of this emerging technology. A generalized LHP theory will be presented in this paper along with the derived governing equations and solution scheme. Model predictions were made and compared with test data for validation.
Technical Paper

### Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe with Two Evaporators and Two Condensers

2001-07-09
2001-01-2190
Most existing loop heat pipes (LHPs) consist of one single evaporator and one single condenser. LHPs with multiple evaporators are very desirable for cooling multiple heat sources or a heat source with large thermal footprints. Extending the current LHP technology to include multiple evaporators and multiple condensers faces some challenges, including operating temperature stability, adaptability of loop operation to rapid power and sink temperature transients, and sizing of the compensation chambers (CCs). This paper describes an overview of an extensive testing program for an LHP with two evaporators and two condensers. Tests performed include start-up, power cycle, sink temperature cycle, CC temperature cycle, and capillary limit. Test results showed that the loop could be started successfully in most cases, and the operating temperature was a function of the total heat load, heat load distribution between the two evaporators, condenser sink temperature and ambient temperature.
Technical Paper

### Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

1999-08-02
1999-01-2627
This paper describes the flight test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5) which flew on the Space Shuttle STS-95 in October of 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight was the first in-space demonstration of the CCPL, a lightweight heat transport and thermal switching device for future integrated cryogenic bus systems. The CCPL-5 utilized nitrogen as the working fluid and operated between 75K and 110K. Flight results indicated excellent performance of the CCPL-5 in a micro-gravity environment. The CCPL could start from a supercritical condition in all tests, and the reservoir set point temperature controlled the loop operating temperature regardless of changes in the heat load and/or the sink temperature. In addition, the loop demonstrated successful operation with heat loads ranging from 0.5W to 3W, as well as with parasitic heat loads alone.
Technical Paper

### Start-Up Behaviors in the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment

1997-07-01
972328
The CAPL 2 Flight Experiment, flown on Space Shuttle STS-69 in 1995, was a flight demonstration of a full-scale prototype of a thermal control system planned for the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM) instruments Flight tests successfully demonstrated various CPL operations with simulated EOS-AM power profiles, including baseline and backup start-up procedures. In general, there were no significant differences in CPL performance between one-G and zero-G. However, some unusual behaviors were observed in several start-ups during the flight test. This paper describes CAPL 2 start-ups in detail, and offers explanations for the notably different zero-G behaviors.
Technical Paper

### Testing of a Capillary Pumped Loop with Multiple Parallel Starter Pumps

1997-07-01
972329
A capillary pumped loop (CPL) with a single starter pump in its evaporator section has been demonstrated to have very reliable start-ups and robust operation. In order to service payloads with large thermal footprints or to service multiple payloads, a CPL with multiple starter pumps seems a logical approach. However, questions were raised concerning its reliability for successful start-ups. In order to verify the feasibility of such a concept, a test program was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, using four starter pumps plumbed in parallel. The main purpose of this experimental investigation was to verify the system's ability to provide a successful start-up and to retain performance characteristics demonstrated by a CPL with multiple evaporators of the traditional two-port pump design. Tests were conducted progressively by installing one, two and four pumps in the test loop.
Technical Paper

### Design Evolution of the Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL 2) Flight Experiment

1996-07-01
961431
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL 2) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in microgravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL 1 was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Start-up difficulties on CAPL 1 led to a redesign of the experiment (CAPL 2) and a reflight on STS-69 in September of 1995. The CAPL 2 flight was extremely successful and the new “starter pump” design is now baselined for the EOS application. This paper emphasizes the design history, the CAPL 2 design, and lessons learned from the CAPL program.
Technical Paper

### Performance of the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment

1996-07-01
961432
This paper describes flight test results of the CAPL 2 Flight Experiment, which is a full scale prototype of a capillary pumped loop (CPL) heat transport system to be used for thermal control of the Earth Observing System (EOS-AM) instruments. One unique feature of CAPL 2 is its capillary starter pump cold plate design, which consists of a single capillary starter pump and two heat pipes. The starter pump enhances start-up success due to its self-priming capability, and provides the necessary capillary pumping force for the entire loop. The heat pipes provide the required isothermalization of the cold plate. Flight tests included those pertinent to specific EOS applications and those intended for verifying generic CPL operating characteristics and performance limits. Experimental results confirmed that the starter pump was indeed self-priming and the loop could be successfully started every time.
Technical Paper

### A Prototype Capillary Starter Pump Cold Plate

1995-07-01
951567
The start-up of a capillary pumped loop under a fully flooded condition is often difficult. The problem is due to the presence of a high superheat at the onset of nucleate boiling, and the associated large pressure spike that results in possible vapor penetration through the wick. To overcome the start-up difficulty, a capillary starter pump has been developed. The starter pump is similar to the traditional evaporator pump except for a bayonet tube that is connected directly from the reservoir to the inside of the pump. Such an evaporator design is selfpriming since all displaced liquid must pass through the pump. The starter pump can replace the traditional capillary pump to provide capillary pumping for heat transport. It can further be integrated into a cold plate to receive heat from distributed sources such as spacecraft instruments. Isothermalization of the cold plate can be accomplished by incorporating heat pipes into the cold plate.
Technical Paper

### Flight Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

1995-07-01
951566
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) employs a passive two-phase thermal control system that uses the latent heat of vaporization of ammonia to transfer heat over long distances. CAPL was designed as a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. The purpose of the mission was to provide validation of the system performance in micro-gravity, prior to implementation on EOS. CAPL was flown on STS-60 in February, 1994, with some unexpected results related to gravitational effects on two-phase systems. Flight test results and post flight investigations will be addressed, along with a brief description of the experiment design.
Technical Paper

### Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

1994-06-01
941599
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) is a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems, which are based on two-phase heat transfer technology. The CAPL experiment has been functionally tested in a thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The tests performed included start-up tests, simulated EOS instrument power profiles, low and high power profiles, a variety of uneven coldplate heating tests, subcooling requirement tests, an induced deprime test, reprimes, saturation temperature changes, and a hybrid (mechanical pump-assist) test. There were a few unexpected evaporator deprimes, but overall the testing was successful. The results of all of the tests are discussed, with emphasis on the deprimes and suspected causes.
Technical Paper

### Flow Visualization within a Capillary Evaporator

1993-07-01
932236
A Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) is an advanced two-phase heat transport device which utilizes capillary forces developed within porous wicks to move a working fluid. The advantage this system has over conventional thermal management systems is its ability to transfer large heat loads over long distances at a controlled temperature. Extensive ground testing and two flight experiments have been performed over the past decade which have demonstrated the potential of the CPL as a reliable and versatile thermal control system for space applications. While the performance of CPL's as “black boxes” is now well understood, the internal thermo-fluid dynamics in a CPL are poorly known due to the difficulty of taking internal measurements. In order to visualize transient thermohydraulic processes occurring inside an evaporator, a see-through capillary evaporator was built and tested at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
Technical Paper

### Testing of Flight Components for the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

1993-07-01
932235
The Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment (CAPL) is a prototype of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument thermal control systems. Four CAPL flight hardware components were tested in the Instrument Thermal Test Bed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The components tested were the capillary cold plates, capillary starter pump, heat pipe heat exchangers (HPHXs), and reservoir. The testing verified that all components meet or exceed their individual performance specifications. Consequently, the components have been integrated into the CAPL experiment which will be flown on the Space Shuttle in late 1993.
Technical Paper

### The Hybrid Capillary Pumped Loop

1988-07-01
881083
This paper describes the operational principles of a hybrid capillary pumped loop in general, and results on testing of a high power hybrid system in particular. A hybrid capillary pumped loop is a thermal control system which consists of a capillary pumped loop and a mechanical pump which is placed in series with the capillary evaporators in the liquid return line. The hybrid loop can be operated in either a passive capillary mode, or in a pump-assisted mode, whereby the mechanical pump augments the heat transport capability of the capillary evaporators. The high power hybrid system was built to demonstrate the feasibility of such a hybrid loop concept. Test results verified that a hybrid loop could be operated in either mode, and that transition between these two modes of operation required opening or closing a single valve on the liquid line.