Refine Your Search

Search Results

Journal Article

Increasing the Load Range, Load-to-Boost Ratio, and Efficiency of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines

Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) has the potential to provide gasoline-fueled engines with efficiencies at or above those of diesel engines and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions. Three key performance goals for LTGC are to obtain high loads, reduce the boost levels required for these loads, and achieve high thermal efficiencies (TEs). This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the use of partial fuel stratification, produced using early direct fuel injection (Early-DI PFS), and an increased compression ratio (CR) to achieve significant improvements in these performance characteristics. The experiments were conducted in a 0.98-liter single-cylinder research engine. Increasing the CR from 14:1 to 16:1 produced a nominal increase in the TE of about one TE percentage unit for both premixed and Early-DI PFS operation.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline Reactivity and Ethanol Content on Boosted, Premixed and Partially Stratified Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC)

Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ϕ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion.
Journal Article

Effect of Ignition Improvers on the Combustion Performance of Regular-Grade E10 Gasoline in an HCCI Engine

This study explores the use of two conventional ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), to enhance the autoignition of the regular gasoline in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The results showed that both EHN and DTBP are very effective for reducing the intake temperature (Tin) required for autoignition and for enhancing stability to allow a higher charge-mass fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕm). On the other hand, the addition of these additives can also make the gasoline too reactive at some conditions, so significant exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is required at these conditions to maintain the desired combustion phasing. Thus, there is a trade-off between improving stability and reducing the oxygen available for combustion when using ignition improvers to extend the high-load limit.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Conventional Gasoline at Highly Boosted Conditions and the Associated Intermediate Temperature Heat Release

The combustion behavior of conventional gasoline has been numerically investigated by means of detailed chemical-kinetic modeling simulations, with particular emphasis on analyzing the chemistry of the intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR). Previous experimental work on highly boosted (up to 325 kPa absolute) HCCI combustion of gasoline (SAE 2020-01-1086) showed a steady increase in the charge temperature up to the point of hot ignition, even for conditions where the ignition point was retarded well after top dead center (TDC). Thus, sufficient energy was being released by early pre-ignition reactions resulting in temperature rise during the early part of the expansion stroke This behavior is associated with a slow pre-ignition heat release (ITHR), which is critical to keep the engine from misfiring at the very late combustion phasings required to prevent knock at high-load boosted conditions.
Journal Article

Smoothing HCCI Heat Release with Vaporization-Cooling-Induced Thermal Stratification using Ethanol

Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Isopentanol as a Fuel for HCCI Engines

Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
Journal Article

Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline

The potential of boosted HCCI for achieving high loads has been investigated for intake pressures (Piⁿ) from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 325 kPa absolute. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) equipped with a compression-ratio 14 piston at 1200 rpm. The intake charge was fully premixed well upstream of the intake, and the fuel was a research-grade (R+M)/2 = 87-octane gasoline with a composition typical of commercial gasolines. Beginning with Piⁿ = 100 kPa, the intake pressure was systematically increased in steps of 20 - 40 kPa, and for each Piⁿ, the fueling was incrementally increased up to the knock/stability limit, beyond which slight changes in combustion conditions can lead to strong knocking or misfire. A combination of reduced intake temperature and cooled EGR was used to compensate for the pressure-induced enhancement of autoignition and to provide sufficient combustion-phasing retard to control knock.
Journal Article

Isolating the Effects of EGR on HCCI Heat-Release Rates and NOX Emissions

High-load HCCI operation is typically limited by rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) and engine knock caused by an overly rapid heat-release rate (HRR). Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is commonly used in HCCI engines, and it is often stated in the literature that charge dilution with EGR (or high levels of retained residuals) is beneficial for reducing the PRR to allow higher loads without knock. However, EGR/retained-residuals affect other operating parameters such as combustion phasing, which can in turn influence the PRR independently from any effect of the EGR gases themselves. Because of the multiple effects of EGR, its direct benefit for reducing the PRR is not well understood. In this work, the effects of EGR on the PRR were isolated by controlling the combustion phasing independently from the EGR addition by adjusting the intake temperature. The experiments were conducted using gasoline as the fuel at a 1200 rpm operating condition.
Journal Article

Influence of EGR Quality and Unmixedness on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines

This work explores how the high-load limits of HCCI are affected by fuel autoignition reactivity, EGR quality/composition, and EGR unmixedness for naturally aspirated conditions. This is done for PRF80 and PRF60. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) with a CR = 14 piston installed. By operating at successively higher engine loads, five load-limiting factors were identified for these fuels: 1) Residual-NOx-induced run-away advancement of the combustion phasing, 2) EGR-NOx-induced run-away, 3) EGR-NOx/wall-heating induced run-away 4) EGR-induced oxygen deprivation, and 5) excessive partial-burn occurrence due to EGR unmixedness. The actual load-limiting factor is dependent on the autoignition reactivity of the fuel, the EGR quality level (where high quality refers to the absence of trace species like NO, HC and CO, i.e. simulated EGR), the level of EGR unmixedness, and the selected pressure-rise rate (PRR).
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Journal Article

Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions

Detailed exhaust speciation measurements were made on an HCCI engine fueled with iso-octane over a range of fueling rates, and over a range of fuel-stratification levels. Fully premixed fueling was used for the fueling sweep. This sweep extended from a fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕ) of 0.28, which is sufficiently high to achieve a combustion efficiency of 96%, down to a below-idle fueling rate of ϕ = 0.08, with a combustion efficiency of only 55%. The stratification sweep was conducted at an idle fueling rate, using an 8-hole GDI injector to vary stratification from well-mixed conditions for an early start of injection (SOI) (40°CA) to highly stratified conditions for an SOI well up the compression stroke (325°CA, 35°bTDC-compression). The engine speed was 1200 rpm. At each operating condition, exhaust samples were collected and analyzed by GC-FID for the C1 and C2 hydrocarbon (HC) species and by GC-MS for all other species except formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Autoignition Reactivity on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines

This work explores the high-load limits of HCCI for naturally aspirated operation. This is done for three fuels with various autoignition reactivity: iso-octane, PRF80, and PRF60. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liter displacement), mostly with a CR = 14 piston installed, but with some tests at CR = 18. Five load-limiting factors were identified: 1) NOx-induced combustion-phasing run-away, 2) wall-heating-induced run-away, 3) EGR-induced oxygen deprivation, 4) wandering unsteady combustion, and 5) excessive exhaust NOx. These experiments at 1200 rpm show that the actual load-limiting factor is dependent on the autoignition reactivity of the fuel, the selected CA50, and in some cases, the tolerable level of NOx emissions. For iso-octane, which has the highest resistance to autoignition of the fuels tested, the NOx emissions become unacceptable at IMEPg = 473 kPa.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification for Low-Load HCCI Combustion: Performance & Fuel-PLIF Measurements

Fuel stratification has been investigated as a means of improving the low-load combustion efficiency in an HCCI engine. Several stratification techniques were examined: different GDI injectors, increased swirl, and changes in injection pressure, to determine which parameters are effective for improving the combustion efficiency while maintaining NOx emissions below U.S. 2010 limits. Performance and emission measurements were obtained in an all-metal engine. Corresponding fuel distribution measurements were made with fuel PLIF imaging in a matching optically accessible engine. The fuel used was iso-octane, which is a good surrogate for gasoline. For an idle fueling rate (ϕ = 0.12), combustion efficiency was improved substantially, from 64% to 89% at the NOx limit, using delayed fuel injection with a hollow-cone injector at an injection pressure of 120 bar.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Chemical Effects of EGR and Its Constituents on HCCI Autoignition

EGR can be used beneficially to control combustion phasing in HCCI engines. To better understand the function of EGR, this study experimentally investigates the thermodynamic and chemical effects of real EGR, simulated EGR, dry EGR, and individual EGR constituents (N2, CO2, and H2O) on the autoignition processes. This was done for gasoline and various PRF blends. The data show that addition of real EGR retards the autoignition timing for all fuels. However, the amount of retard is dependent on the specific fuel type. This can be explained by identifying and quantifying the various underlying mechanisms, which are: 1) Thermodynamic cooling effect due to increased specific-heat capacity, 2) [O2] reduction effect, 3) Enhancement of autoignition due to the presence of H2O, 4) Enhancement or suppression of autoignition due to the presence of trace species such as unburned or partially-oxidized hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

EGR and Intake Boost for Managing HCCI Low-Temperature Heat Release over Wide Ranges of Engine Speed

Reaching for higher loads and improving combustion-phasing control are important challenges for HCCI research. Although HCCI engines can operate with a variety of fuels, recent research has shown that fuels with two-stage autoignition have some significant advantages for overcoming these challenges. Because the amount of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is proportional to the local equivalence ratio (ϕ), fuel stratification can be used to adjust the combustion phasing (CA50) and/or burn duration using various fuel-injection strategies. Two-stage ignition fuels also allow stable combustion even for extensive combustion-phasing retard, which reduces the knocking propensity. Finally, the LTHR reduces the required intake temperature, which increases the inducted charge mass for a given intake pressure, allowing higher fueling rates before knocking and NOx emissions become a problem. However, the amount of LTHR is normally highly dependent on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1328 species and 5835 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation.
Technical Paper

Spatial Analysis of Emissions Sources for HCCI Combustion at Low Loads Using a Multi-Zone Model

We have conducted a detailed numerical analysis of HCCI engine operation at low loads to investigate the sources of HC and CO emissions and the associated combustion inefficiencies. Engine performance and emissions are evaluated as fueling is reduced from typical HCCI conditions, with an equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.26 to very low loads (ϕ = 0.04). Calculations are conducted using a segregated multi-zone methodology and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for iso-octane with 859 chemical species. The computational results agree very well with recent experimental results. Pressure traces, heat release rates, burn duration, combustion efficiency and emissions of hydrocarbon, oxygenated hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide are generally well predicted for the whole range of equivalence ratios. The computational model also shows where the pollutants originate within the combustion chamber, thereby explaining the changes in the HC and CO emissions as a function of equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Fuel-Type and Engine Speed on Intake Temperature Requirements and Completeness of Bulk-Gas Reactions for HCCI Combustion

To gain a better understanding of how the onset of incomplete bulk-gas reactions changes with engine speed and fuel-type, a parametric study of HCCI combustion and emissions has been conducted. The experimental part of the study was performed at naturally aspirated conditions and included fueling sweeps at four engine speeds (600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 rpm) for research grade gasoline, pure iso-octane and two mixtures of the primary reference fuels (i.e. n-heptane and iso-octane) with octane numbers of 80 and 60. Additionally, single-zone CHEMKIN computations with a detailed mechanism for iso-octane were conducted. The results show that there is a strong coupling between the ignition quality of the fuel and the required intake temperature to phase the combustion at TDC. There is also a direct influence of intake temperature on the completeness of combustion. This is the case because the CO-to-CO2 reactions are highly sensitive to the peak combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study of HCCI Combustion - the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection

A combined experimental and modeling study has been conducted to investigate the sources of CO and HC emissions (and the associated combustion inefficiencies) at low-loads. Engine performance and emissions were evaluated as fueling was reduced from knocking conditions to very low loads (ϕ = 0.28 - 0.04) for a variety of operating conditions, including: various intake temperatures, engine speeds, compression ratios, and a comparison of fully premixed and GDI (gasoline-type direct injection) fueling. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine (0.98 liters) using iso-octane as the fuel. Comparative computations were made using a single-zone model with the full chemistry mechanisms for iso-octane, to determine the expected behavior of the bulk-gases for the limiting case of no heat transfer, crevices, or charge inhomogeneities.

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

The homogeneous charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion process has the potential to significantly reduce NOx and particulate emissions, while achieving high thermal efficiency and the capability of operating with a wide variety of fuels. This makes the HCCI engine an attractive technology that can ostensibly provide diesel-like fuel efficiency and very low emissions, which may allow emissions compliance to occur without relying on lean aftertreatment systems.