Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Nonuniformity and NO2/NOx Ratio Effects on the SCR Performance under Transient Engine Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1556
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are in use on heavy duty diesel engines for NOx control. An SCR NOx reduction efficiency of higher than 95% is required to meet the proposed increasingly stringent NOx emission standards and the 2014-2018 fuel consumption regulations. The complex engine exhaust conditions including the nonuniformity of temperature, flow, and maldistribution of NH3 present at the catalyst inlet need to be considered for improved performance of the SCR system. These factors cause the SCR to underperform negatively impacting the NOx reduction efficiency as well as the NH3 slip. In this study, the effects of the nonuniformity of temperature, flow velocity and maldistribution of NH3 on the SCR performance were investigated using 1-dimensional (1D) model simulations for a Cu-zeolite SCR. The model was previously calibrated and validated to reactor and steady-state and transient engine experimental data.
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides Kinetics Based on Engine Experimental Data for a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter

2014-04-01
2014-01-1553
A numerical model to simulate the filtration and oxidation of PM as well as the oxidation of NO, CO and HC in a CPF was developed in reference [1]. The model consists of parameters related to filtration and oxidation of PM and oxidation of NO, CO and HC. One of the goals of this paper is to use the model to determine the PM and gaseous species kinetics for ULSD, B10 and B20 fuels using data from passive oxidation and active regeneration engine experimental studies. A calibration procedure to identify the PM cake and wall filtration parameters and kinetic parameters for the PM oxidation and NO, CO and HC oxidation was developed. The procedure was then used with the passive oxidation [2] and active regeneration [3] engine data. The tests were conducted on a 2007 Cummins ISL engine with a DOC and CPF aftertreatment system. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental CPF pressure drop, PM mass retained measurements and the outlet NO, NO2, CO and HC concentrations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of Reaction Kinetics for a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Based on Engine Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1054
A high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) model which can predict SCR performance in engine exhaust systems is desirable for optimizing the SCR system, designing on-vehicle control systems and on-board diagnostic (OBD) functions. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst in the exhaust of a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel engine was experimentally studied under both steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state engine tests spanned SCR inlet temperatures from 250 to 400°C with a constant space velocity of 60 khr-1. A 1-D Cu-zeolite model originally developed from reactor data was improved and calibrated to the steady-state engine experimental data. The calibrated model is capable of predicting NO/NO₂ reduction, NH₃ slip, and NH₃ storage associated phenomena.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation into Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter with Biodiesel Blends on an Engine during Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0521
Active regeneration experiments were carried out on a production 2007 Cummins 8.9L ISL engine and associated diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) aftertreatment system. The effects of SME biodiesel blends were investigated to determine the particulate matter (PM) oxidation reaction rates for active regeneration. The experimental data from this study will also be used to calibrate the MTU-1D CPF model [1]. The experiments covered a range of CPF inlet temperatures using ULSD, B10, and B20 blends of biodiesel. The majority of the tests were performed at a CPF PM loading of 2.2 g/L with in-cylinder dosing, although 4.1 g/L and a post-turbo dosing injector were also investigated. The PM reaction rate was shown to increase with increasing percent biodiesel in the test fuel as well as increasing CPF temperature.
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0837
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

2010-04-12
2010-01-0557
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D CPF Model to Simulate Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-1283
A quasi-steady 1-dimensional computer model of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) capable of simulating active regeneration of the CPF via diesel fuel injection upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or other means to increase the exhaust gas temperature has been developed. This model is capable of predicting gaseous species concentrations (HC's, CO, NO and NO2) and exhaust gas temperatures within and after the CPF, for given input values of gaseous species and PM concentrations before the CPF and other inlet variables such as time-varying temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the CPF and volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation and Control System Development in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1324
In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Active Regeneration of an Advanced Catalyzed Particulate Filter by Diesel Fuel Injection Upstream of an Oxidation Catalyst

2006-04-03
2006-01-0879
Passive regeneration (oxidation of particulate matter without using an external energy source) of particulate filters in combination with active regeneration is necessary for low load engine operating conditions. For low load conditions, the exhaust gas temperatures are less than 250°C and the PM oxidation rate due to passive regeneration is less than the PM accumulation rate. The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using diesel fuel injection in the exhaust gas after the turbocharger and before a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and to collect data for extending the MTU 1-D 2-layer model to include the simulation of active regeneration. The engine used in this study was a 2002 Cummins ISM turbo charged 10.8 L heavy duty diesel engine with cooled EGR. The exhaust after-treatment system consisted of a Johnson Matthey DOC and CPF (a CCRT®).
Book

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

2005-06-27
Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2005-04-11
2005-01-0970
Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0336
A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of Cordierite Traps - Pressure Drop and Permeability of Clean and Particulate Loaded Traps

2000-03-06
2000-01-0476
A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, particulate mass inside the trap and various particulate and trap properties was developed using the steady-state data and the theory developed by Konstandopoulos & Johnson, 1989. Changes were made with respect to the calculation of clean pressure drop, particulate layer porosity and the particulate layer permeability. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state data run with different traps supplied by Corning Inc. The data were collected using the 1988 Cummins L-10 heavy-duty diesel engine using No.2 low sulfur diesel fuel. The three different traps were EX 80 (100 cell density), EX 80 (200 cell density) and EX 66 (100 cell density) all with a 229 mm diameter and 305 mm length. These traps were subjected to different particulate matter loadings at different speeds. The traps were not catalyzed.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

1998-05-04
981423
To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970187
The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960136
The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1994-10-01
942068
This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
X