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Technical Paper

Side Impact Assessment and Comparison of Appropriate Size and Age Equivalent Porcine Surrogates to Scaled Human Side Impact Response Biofidelity Corridors

Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws. Appropriate Porcine Surrogate Equivalents PSE for the human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male, based on whole body mass, were established. A series of lateral impact thorax and abdomen pendulum testing was performed based on previously established scaled lateral impact assessment test protocols.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Injury Predictors for Traumatic Axonal Injury in a Rodent Head Impact Acceleration Model

A modified Marmarou impact acceleration injury model was developed to study the kinematics of the rat head to quantify traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in the corpus callosum (CC) and brainstem pyramidal tract (Py), to determine injury predictors and to establish injury thresholds for severe TAI. Thirty-one anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (392 ± 13 grams) were impacted using a modified impact acceleration injury device from 2.25 m and 1.25 m heights. Beta-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) immunocytochemistry was used to assess and quantify axonal changes in CC and Py. Over 600 injury maps in CC and Py were constructed in the 31 impacted rats. TAI distribution along the rostro-caudal direction in CC and Py was determined. Linear and angular responses of the rat head were monitored and measured in vivo with an attached accelerometer and angular rate sensor, and were correlated to TAI data.
Technical Paper

A New Model of Traumatic Axonal Injury to Determine the Effects of Strain and Displacement Rates

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a major health problem, with over 500,000 cases per year with a societal cost of approximately $85 billion in the US. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of such injuries. In many cases of TBI widespread disruption of the axons occurs through a process known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or traumatic axonal injury (TAI). In the current study, an in vivo TAI model was developed using spinal nerve roots of adult rats. This model was used to determine functional and structural responses of axons to various strains and displacement rates. Fifty-six L5 dorsal nerve roots were each subjected to a predetermined strain range (<10%, 10-20% and >20%) at a specified displacement rate (0.01 mm/sec and 15 mm/sec) only once. Image analysis was used to determine actual strains on the roots during the pull.
Technical Paper

Shoulder Injury and Response Due to Lateral Glenohumeral Joint Impact: An Analysis of Combined Data

To date, several lateral impact studies (Bolte et al., 2000, 2003, Marth, 2002 and Compigne et al., 2004) have been performed on the shoulder to determine the response characteristics and injury threshold of the shoulder complex. Our understanding of the biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder would be improved if the results of these tests were combined. From a larger data base shoulder injury tolerance criteria can be developed as well as corridors for side impact dummies. Data from the study by Marth (2002, 12 tests) was combined with data from the previous studies. Twenty-two low speed tests (4.5 ± 0.7 m/s) and 9 high speed tests (6.7 ± 0.7 m/s) were selected from the combined data for developing corridors. Shoulder force, deflection and T1y acceleration corridors were developed using a minimization of cumulative variance technique.
Technical Paper

Neural Response of Cervical Facet Joint Capsule to Stretch: A Study of Whiplash Pain Mechanism

Cervical facet joints are implicated as a major source of pain after whiplash injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the proposed capsule strain injury mechanism of whiplash pain using neurophysiologic methods. Strain thresholds, threshold distribution, saturation strains and afterdischarge responses of capsule neural receptors were characterized in vivo. Goat C5-C6 facet joint capsules were used to identify and characterize capsule receptors in response to controlled uniaxial stretch by recording C6 dorsal rootlet nerve discharge. The joints were stretched at 0.5 mm/sec in a series of tests with 2 mm increments until the capsule ruptured. Ninety-two identified units were responsive to physiologic or noxious stretch while 28 were silent receptors. Among the 50 characterized responsive units, 42 showed low strain thresholds at 10.2±4.6% while 8 had high strain thresholds at 47.2±9.6%.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta in Side Impact Sled Tests

Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) is a leading cause of death in high velocity blunt trauma, particularly motor vehicle accidents. However, little is understood about the mechanisms of TRA and thus, the opportunities to prevent TRA in the motor vehicle environment are compromised. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between impact response and TRA through analyses of data from cadaver tests that successfully produced TRA in lateral impacts. Seventeen Heidelberg-style side impact sled tests were conducted using unembalmed human cadavers. Three sled speeds were used: 6.7, 9.0, and 10.5 m/s. Three barrier configurations were used: rigid flat wall, rigid wall with a 152-mm offset toward the pelvis, and a flat wall with padding of varying stiffness. Multiple load and acceleration measurements were made on the barrier and cadaver. Potential injury parameters were evaluated and their relative predictive abilities were examined.
Technical Paper

Injury and Response of the Shoulder in Lateral Sled Tests

The biomechanical response and injury tolerance of the shoulder in lateral impacts is not well understood. These data are needed to better understand human injury tolerance, validate finite element models and develop biofidelic shoulders in side impact dummies. Seventeen side impact sled tests were performed with unembalmed human cadavers. Data analyzed for this study include T1-Y acceleration, shoulder and thoracic load plate forces, upper sternum x and y accelerations, and struck side acromion x, y and z accelerations. One dimensional deflection at the shoulder level was determined from high-speed film by measuring the distance between a target on T1 and the impacted wall. Force-time response corridors were obtained for tests with 9 m/s pelvic offset, 10.5 m/s pelvic offset, 9 m/s unpadded flat wall, 6.7 m/s unpadded flat wall, 9 m/s soft padding and 9 m/s stiff padding. Maximum shoulder plate forces in unpadded 9 m/s tests (5.5 kN) were larger than in 6.7 m/s tests (3.3 kN).
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Mechanisms and Biomechanical Responses in Lateral Velocity Pulse Impacts

The purpose of this study is to help understand the thoracic response and injury mechanisms in high-energy, limited-stroke, lateral velocity pulse impacts to the human chest wall. To impart such impacts, a linear impactor was developed which had a limited stroke and minimally decreased velocity during impact. The peak impact velocity was 5.6 ± 0.3 m/s. A series of BioSID and cadaver tests were conducted to measure biomechanical response and injury data. The conflicting effects of padding on increased deflection and decreased acceleration were demonstrated in tests with BioSID and cadavers. The results of tests conducted on six cadavers were used to test several proposed injury criteria for side impact. Linear regression was used to correlate each injury criterion to the number of rib fractures. This test methodology captured and supported a contrasting trend of increased chest deflection and decreased TTI when padding was introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of a Sled-to-Sled Subsystem Side Impact Test Methodology

A sled-to-sled subsystem side impact test methodology has been developed by using two sleds at the WSU Bioengineering Center in order to simulate a car-to-car side impact, particularly in regards to the door velocity profile. Initially this study concentrated on tailoring door pulse to match the inner door velocity profile from FMVSS 214 full-scale dynamic side impact tests. This test device simulates a pulse quite similar to a typical door velocity of a full size car in a dynamic side impact test. Using the newly developed side impact test device three runs with a SID dummy were performed to study the effects of door padding and spacing in a real side impact situation. This paper describes the test methodology to simulate door intrusion velocity profiles in side impact and discusses SID dummy test results for different padding conditions.
Technical Paper

Abdominal Injury and Response in Side Impact

The purpose of this paper is to address abdominal injury and response in cadaver whole body side impacts and abdominal injury risk functions in SID and BIOSID in whole body impacts. Side impact sled tests were performed at Wayne State University using cadavers, SID and BIOSID, with response measured at the shoulder, thorax, abdominal and pelvic levels. The data at the abdominal level are presented here. These data provide further understanding of abdominal tolerance and response in lateral impact and the ability of side impact dummies to predict abdominal injury. In addition, the padding data provide insight into tolerable armrest loads.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of TTI and ASA in SID Side Impact Sled Tests

Thirty-seven SID side impact sled tests were performed using a rigid wall and a padded wall with fourteen different padding configurations. The Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI) and Average Spine Acceleration (ASA) were measured in each test. TTI and ASA were evaluated in terms of their ability to predict injury in identical cadaver tests and in terms of their ability to predict the harm or benefit of padding of different crush strengths. SID ASA predicted the injury seen in WSU-CDC cadaver tests better than SID TTI. SID ASA predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is harmful (ASA > 40 g's). SID TTI predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is beneficial (TTI < 85 g's). SID TTI predicts the benefit of lower impact velocity. However, SID ASA appears more useful in assessing the harm or benefit of door padding or air bags.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Gross Motion of Human Cadavers in Side Impact

Seventeen Heidelberg type cadaveric side impact sled tests, two sled-to-sled tests, and forty-four pendulum tests have been conducted at Wayne State University, to determine human responses and tolerances in lateral collisions. This paper describes the development of a simplified finite element model of a human occupant in a side impact configuration to simulate those cadaveric experiments. The twelve ribs were modeled by shell elements. The visceral contents were modeled as an elastic solid accompanied by an array of discrete dampers. Bone condition factors were obtained after autopsy to provide material properties for the model. The major parameters used for comparison are contact forces at the level of shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, lateral accelerations of ribs 4 and 8 and of T12, thoracic compression and injury functions V*C, TTI and ASA.
Technical Paper

Displacement Responses of the Shoulder and Thorax in Lateral Sled Impacts

Three-dimensional film analysis was used to study the response of the shoulder and thoracic skeleton of cadavers to lateral sled tests conducted at Wayne State University. The response of the shoulder structure was of particular interest, although, it is perhaps the most difficult skeletal structure to track in a side impact. Results of the three-dimensional film analysis are given for rigid impacts at 6.7 and 9.1 meters per second, and for padded impacts averaging 9 meters per second. Results from a two-dimensional film analysis are included for the impacted clavicle which could not be tracked by the three-dimensional film analysis. Displacements at various locations on the shoulder and thoracic skeleton were normalized to estimate the response of a fiftieth percentile male.
Technical Paper

Regional Tolerance of the Shoulder, Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis to Padding in Side Impact

Lateral impact testing has been performed on the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis of human cadavers by several investigators. The impacts have either been whole body impacts in sled tests or pendulum type impacts to the separate regions. Based on the forces produced in these tests and the accompanying injury, initial recommendations can be made on force-tolerance and padding tolerance to the various regions of the human body in side impact. The pelvis has the highest force tolerance, followed by the shoulder, abdomen and thorax. Padding crush strength tolerance based on these forces and estimated contact areas are presented. This information is of practical importance to engineers who design door interior trim for side impact safety.
Technical Paper

Performance and Mechanical Properties of Various Padding Materials Used in Cadaveric Side Impact Sled Tests

Various types of padding have been used in side impact sled tests with cadavers. This paper presents a summary of performance of the padding used in NHTSA and WSU/CDC sled tests, and a summary of material properties of padding used in cadaveric sled tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on padding performance in cadavers, rather than optimum padding performance in dummies.
Technical Paper

SID Response Data in a Side Impact Sled Test Series

Heidelberg-type side impact sled tests were conducted using SID side impact dummies. These tests were run under similar conditions to a series of cadaveric sled tests funded by the Centers for Disease Control in the same lab. Tests included 6.7 and 9 m/s (15 and 20 mph) unpadded and 9 m/s padded tests. The following padding was used at the thorax: ARSAN, ARCEL, ARPAK, ARPRO, DYTHERM, 103 and 159 kPa (15 and 23 psi) crush strength paper honeycomb, and an expanded polystyrene. In all padded tests the dummy Thoracic Trauma Index, TTI(d) was below the value of 85 set by federal rulemaking (49 CFR, Part 571 et al., 1990). In contrast, cadavers in 9 m/s sled tests did not tolerate ARSAN 601 (MAIS 5) and 23 psi (159 kPa) paper honeycomb (MAIS 5), and 20 psi (138 kPa) Verticel™ honeycomb (MAIS 4), but tolerated 15 psi (103 kPa) paper honeycomb (average thoracic MAIS 2.3 in six tests).
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response and Injury Tolerance of the Thorax in Twelve Sled Side Impacts

Twelve side impact sled tests were performed using a horizontally accelerated sled and a Heidelberg-type seat fixture. In these tests the subject's whole body impacted a sidewall with one of three surface conditions: 1) a flat, rigid side wall, 2) a side wall with a 6″ pelvic offset, or 3) a flat, padded side wall. This series of runs provided a good test of how injury criteria perform under a variety of impact surface conditions. In this study thoracic injury criteria based on force, acceleration, compression, and velocity x compression (VC) were evaluated. Maximum compression and VCmax proved to be the best injury indicators in this series. Biomechanical response and injury tolerance are also presented.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response and Injury Tolerance of the Pelvis in Twelve Sled Side Impacts

Twelve side impact sled tests were performed using a horizontally accelerated sled and a Heidelberg-type seat fixture. The purpose of these tests was to better understand biomechanical response and injury tolerance in whole-body side impacts. In these tests the subject's whole body impacted a sidewall with one of three surface conditions: 1) a flat, rigid side wall, 2) a side wall with a 6″ pelvic offset, or 3) a flat, padded side wall. This paper presents the biomechanical response and injury tolerance data obtained for the pelvis. Peak values of sacral-y acceleration, pelvic force, compression and velocity x compression were evaluated as predictors of pelvic injury. Based on Logist analysis, Vmax x Cmax was the best predictor of probability of pelvic fracture in this test series, while peak pelvic force and peak compression also performed well.
Technical Paper

Lower Abdominal Tolerance and Response

Twelve unembalmed human cadavers were tested for lower abdominal injury tolerance and mechanical response. The impacts were in an anterior-to-posterior direction and the level of impact was primarily in the lower abdomen at the L3 level of the lumbar spine. The impactor mass was either 32 kg or 64 kg. The impactor face was a 25 mm diameter aluminum bar, with the long axis of the bar parallel to the width of the cadaver body. In this paper, mechanical response is presented in terms of force-time and penetration-time histories, and force vs. abdominal penetration cross-plots. Injury tolerance is described in terms of post-impact necropsy findings and AIS ratings. Based on our studies, the lower abdomen of the unembalmed human cadaver is much less stiff than is suggested by previous research, and the stiffness is velocity and mass dependent, as is suggested by the correlation coefficients presented in this paper. Force-time history and force-penetration response corridors are presented.