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Technical Paper

Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1565
Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Physics-Based Models, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimization of Automotive Batteries

2014-04-01
2014-01-1865
The analysis of nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. In this paper, a physics-based model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented. To analyze its performance, the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure, which is defined as the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. Parametric sensitivity analysis will be used to generate sensitivity information for the state variables of the model. The generated information will be used to showcase how sensitivity information can be used to identify unique model behavior and how it can be used to optimize the capacity of the battery. The results will be validated using a finite difference formulation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Optimization Techniques for Lithium-Ion Battery Model Parameter Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1851
Due to rising fuel prices and environmental concerns, Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been gaining market share as fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly alternatives. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in EV and HEV applications because of their high power and energy densities. During controls development of HEVs and EVs, hardware-in-the-loop simulations involving real-time battery models are commonly used to simulate a battery response in place of a real battery. One physics-based model which solves in real-time is the reduced-order battery model developed by Dao et al. [1], which is based on the isothermal model by Newman [2] incorporating concentrated solution theory and porous electrode theory [3]. The battery models must be accurate for effective control; however, if the battery parameters are unknown or change due to degradation, a method for estimating the battery parameters to update the model is required.
Journal Article

Physics-Based Models, Sensitivity Analysis, and Optimization of Automotive Batteries

2013-10-14
2013-01-2560
The analysis of nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. In this paper, a physics-based model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented. To analyze its performance, the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure, which is defined as the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. Parametric sensitivity analysis will be used to generate sensitivity information for the state variables of the model. The generated information will be used to showcase how sensitivity information can be used to identify unique model behavior and how it can be used to optimize the capacity of the battery. The results will be validated using a finite difference formulation.
Journal Article

Development of an Advanced Fuzzy Active Steering Controller and a Novel Method to Tune the Fuzzy Controller

2013-04-08
2013-01-0688
A two-passenger, all-wheel-drive urban electric vehicle (AUTO21EV) with four direct-drive in-wheel motors has been designed and developed at the University of Waterloo. An advanced genetic-fuzzy active steering controller is developed based on this vehicle platform. The rule base of the fuzzy controller is developed from expert knowledge, and a multi-criteria genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the fuzzy active steering controller. To evaluate the performance of this controller, a computational model of the AUTO21EV is driven through several standard test maneuvers using an advanced path-following driver model. As the final step in the evaluation process, the genetic-fuzzy active steering controller is implemented in a hardware- and operator-in-the-loop driving simulator to confirm its performance and effectiveness.
Journal Article

Development of an Advanced Torque Vectoring Control System for an Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors using Soft Computing Techniques

2013-04-08
2013-01-0698
A two-passenger, all-wheel-drive urban electric vehicle (AUTO21EV) with four direct-drive in-wheel motors has been designed and developed at the University of Waterloo. A 14-degree-of-freedom model of this vehicle has been used to develop a genetic fuzzy yaw moment controller. The genetic fuzzy yaw moment controller determines the corrective yaw moment that is required to stabilize the vehicle, and applies a virtual yaw moment around the vertical axis of the vehicle. In this work, an advanced torque vectoring controller is developed, the objective of which is to generate the required corrective yaw moment through the torque intervention of the individual in-wheel motors, stabilizing the vehicle during both normal and emergency driving maneuvers. Novel algorithms are developed for the left-to-right torque vectoring control on each axle and for the front-to-rear torque vectoring distribution action.
Journal Article

Development of an Integrated Control Strategy Consisting of an Advanced Torque Vectoring Controller and a Genetic Fuzzy Active Steering Controller

2013-04-08
2013-01-0681
The optimum driving dynamics can be achieved only when the tire forces on all four wheels and in all three coordinate directions are monitored and controlled precisely. This advanced level of control is possible only when a vehicle is equipped with several active chassis control systems that are networked together in an integrated fashion. To investigate such capabilities, an electric vehicle model has been developed with four direct-drive in-wheel motors and an active steering system. Using this vehicle model, an advanced slip control system, an advanced torque vectoring controller, and a genetic fuzzy active steering controller have been developed previously. This paper investigates whether the integration of these stability control systems enhances the performance of the vehicle in terms of handling, stability, path-following, and longitudinal dynamics.
Journal Article

Development of a Path-following and a Speed Control Driver Model for an Electric Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0250
A two-passenger all-wheel-drive urban electric vehicle (AUTO21EV) with four in-wheel motors and an active steering system has been designed and developed at the University of Waterloo. In order to evaluate the handling and performance of such a vehicle in the design stage and analyze the effectiveness of different chassis control systems before implementing them in the real vehicle, the simulation of a large number of different open-loop and closed-loop test maneuvers is necessary. Thus, in the simulation environment, not only is a mathematical vehicle model needed for every test maneuver, but a driver model must also be designed to simulate the closed-loop test maneuvers. The role of the driver model is to calculate the control inputs required to successfully follow a predefined path.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuzzy Slip Control System for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors

2012-04-16
2012-01-0248
A two-passenger all-wheel drive urban electric vehicle (AUTO21EV) with four direct-drive in-wheel motors and an active steering system has been designed and developed at the University of Waterloo. A novel fuzzy slip control system is developed for this vehicle using the advantage of four in-wheel motors. A conventional slip control system uses the hydraulic brake system in order to control the tire slip ratio, which is the difference between the wheel center velocity and the velocity of the tire contact patch along the wheel plane, thereby influencing the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle. The advantage of the proposed fuzzy slip controller is that it acts as an ABS system by preventing the tires from locking up when braking, as a TCS by preventing the tires from spinning out when accelerating.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Fidelity Series-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model using a Mathematics-Based Approach

2011-05-17
2011-39-7201
The recent increase in oil prices and environmental concerns have attracted various research efforts on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which provide promising alternatives to conventional engine-powered vehicles with better fuel economy and fewer emissions. To speed up the design and prototyping processes of new HEVs, a method that automatically generates mathematics equations governing the vehicle system response in an optimized symbolic form is desirable. To achieve this goal, we employed MapleSimTM, a new physical modeling tool developed by Maplesoft Inc., to develop the multi-domain model of a series-HEV, utilizing the symbolic computing algorithms of Maple software package to generate an optimized set of governing equations. The HEV model consists of a mean-value internal combustion engine (ICE), a chemistry-based Ni-MH battery pack, and a multibody vehicle model. Simulations are then used to demonstrate the performance of the developed HEV system.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling and Symbolic Sensitivity Analysis of Ni-MH Batteries

2011-04-12
2011-01-1371
Because of its widespread use in almost all the current electric and hybrid electric vehicles on the market, nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. To help understand these complex phenomena, a mathematical model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented in this paper. A parametric importance analysis is performed on this model to assess the contribution of individual model parameters to the battery performance. In this paper the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure. Efficiency is defined by the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. By evaluating the sensitivity of the efficiency with respect to various model parameters, the order of importance of those parameters is obtained.
Journal Article

Integrated Stability Control System for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors using Soft Computing Techniques

2009-04-20
2009-01-0435
An electric vehicle model has been developed with four direct-drive in-wheel motors. A high-level vehicle stability controller is proposed, which uses the principles of fuzzy logic to determine the corrective yaw moment required to minimize the vehicle sideslip and yaw rate errors. A genetic algorithm has been used to optimize the parameters of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the controller is evaluated as the vehicle is driven through a double-lane-change maneuver. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system has the ability to improve the performance of the vehicle considerably.
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