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Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

2018-04-03
2018-01-0433
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of 12V Lead-Acid Battery for Stop-Start Technology

2017-03-28
2017-01-1211
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires.
Technical Paper

Effect of Current and SOC on Round-Trip Energy Efficiency of a Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Pack

2015-04-14
2015-01-1186
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by applying a fixed quantity of charge and discharge current between 0.2C and 2C rates and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 23°C.
Technical Paper

HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1863
A Battery Test Facility (BTF) has been constructed at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to test various automotive battery packs for HEV, PHEV, and EV vehicles. Battery pack tests were performed in the BTF using a battery cycler, testing controllers, battery pack cooler, and a temperature controlled chamber. For e-machine testing and HEV power pack component testing, a variety of different battery packs are needed to power these devices to simulate in-vehicle conditions. For in-house e-machine testing and development, it is cost prohibitive to purchase a variety of battery packs, and also very time-consuming to interpret the battery management systems, CAN signals, and other interfaces for different vehicle manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Power-Split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1470
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool will extend its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1539
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technology such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG and Fuel Economy rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool extends its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Catalyst Emission Control Systems for Nonroad SI Class I Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1900
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated catalyst-muffler exhaust systems for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class I engines (sub-19 kW, less than 225 cc). Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for 4 different Class I engine families. Passive secondary air-injection systems were used with most of the systems to provide an exhaust feed-gas composition that was slightly rich of stoichiometry when used in conjunction with unmodified “Phase 2” carburetor A/F ratio calibrations. Catalyst sizing, PGM loading, and secondary-air venturi design were selected to limit CO oxidation and the typically resultant high heat rejection at high load operating points while still providing good NOx and HC emission control. Infrared thermal imaging was used to assess heat rejection at the EPA A-cycle operational points and during simulated hot soaks for selected configurations.
Technical Paper

Testing of the Toyota Avensis DPNR at U.S. EPA-NVFEL

2002-10-21
2002-01-2877
An advanced prototype of the Toyota Avensis light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with a version of Toyota's DPNR exhaust emission control system was tested at the U.S. EPA - NVFEL facility. The vehicle is under development by Toyota Motor Corporation for introduction in Europe. While this particular model is not anticipated to be offered for sale in the U.S., EPA evaluated the vehicle to gauge the current state of light-duty diesel vehicle technology. The vehicle was tested using a low sulfur (6 ppm) diesel fuel with a cetane number that was improved to near typical European levels (∼50 cetane). Emission levels over the FTP75 consistent with U.S. Federal Light-Duty Tier 2 emission standards were achieved at levels of fuel economy that are competitive with current light-duty diesel passenger vehicles offered for sale in the U.S. The vehicle was tested with relatively low accumulated mileage.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Tier 2 Emission Levels for Heavy Light-Duty Trucks

2000-06-19
2000-01-1957
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a program to demonstrate feasibility of the Tier 2 emissions standards for the largest vehicles regulated under the new standards. Advanced emission control systems were developed and evaluated using a large 1999 sport utility vehicle and a large 1999 light-duty pickup truck. The trucks were originally certified to California LEV-I or Federal Tier 1 emission standards. Advanced, high-cell density, ceramic and metallic substrate three-way catalysts were thermally aged to the equivalent of 80,000 km (50,000 miles) and integrated into the exhaust systems for evaluation. Low mass, thermally insulated exhaust system components were fabricated and evaluated. Engine control strategies were modified via ROM-emulation and powertrain control module (PCM) flash reprogramming. Both of the tested trucks demonstrated FTP emissions at levels below 2004 U.S Federal Tier 2 emissions standards.
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