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Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

2019-04-02
2019-01-0249
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1423
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index).
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0161
The thermal efficiency benefits of low-pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignition engine combustion are well known. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of LP-EGR for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting. Variable nozzle turbines (VNTs) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures (EGTs). The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some LP-EGR applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, EGR rates and fuel types.
Journal Article

Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0319
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.
Journal Article

Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

2018-04-03
2018-01-0433
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of 12V Lead-Acid Battery for Stop-Start Technology

2017-03-28
2017-01-1211
As part of the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 Light-duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of stop-start technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Stop-start technology is widespread in Europe due to high fuel prices and due to stringent EU CO2 emissions standards beginning in 2012. Stop-start has recently appeared as a standard equipment option on high-volume vehicles like the Chevrolet Malibu, Ford Fusion, Chrysler 200, Jeep Cherokee, and Ram 1500 truck. EPA has included stop-start technology in its assessment of CO2-reducing technologies available for compliance with the standards. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. The introduction of stop-start has stimulated development of 12-volt battery systems capable of providing the enhanced performance and cycle life durability that it requires.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Optimization and Calibration in High-Compression-Ratio Naturally Aspirated SI Engines with Cooled-EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0565
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) “Midterm Evaluation of Light-duty Vehicle Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 [1]”, the U.S. EPA is evaluating engines and assessing the effectiveness of future engine technologies for reducing CO2 emissions. Such assessments often require significant development time and resources in order to optimize intake and exhaust cam variable valve timing (VVT), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow rates, and compression ratio (CR) changes. Mazda SkyActiv-G spark-ignition (SI) engines were selected by EPA for an internal engine development program based upon their high geometric compression ratio (14:1 in Europe and Japan, 13:1 in North America) and their use of a flexible valve train configuration with electro-mechanical phasing control on the intake camshaft. A one-dimensional GT-Power engine model was calibrated and validated using detailed engine dynamometer test data [2] from 2.0L and 2.5L versions of the SkyActiv-G engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Current and SOC on Round-Trip Energy Efficiency of a Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Pack

2015-04-14
2015-01-1186
While equivalent circuit modeling is an effective way to model the performance of automotive Li-ion batteries, in some applications it is more convenient to refer to round-trip energy efficiency. Energy efficiency of either cells or full packs is seldom documented by manufacturers in enough detail to provide an accurate impression of this metric over a range of operating conditions. The energy efficiency of a full battery pack may also be subject to more variables than would be represented by extrapolating results obtained from a single cell, and can be more demanding to measure in an accurate and consistent manner. Roundtrip energy efficiency of a 22.8-kWh A123 Li-ion (Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4) battery pack was measured by applying a fixed quantity of charge and discharge current between 0.2C and 2C rates and at SOCs between 10% and 90% at an average temperature of 23°C.
Technical Paper

HIL Development and Validation of Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1863
A Battery Test Facility (BTF) has been constructed at United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to test various automotive battery packs for HEV, PHEV, and EV vehicles. Battery pack tests were performed in the BTF using a battery cycler, testing controllers, battery pack cooler, and a temperature controlled chamber. For e-machine testing and HEV power pack component testing, a variety of different battery packs are needed to power these devices to simulate in-vehicle conditions. For in-house e-machine testing and development, it is cost prohibitive to purchase a variety of battery packs, and also very time-consuming to interpret the battery management systems, CAN signals, and other interfaces for different vehicle manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Power-Split and P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1470
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool will extend its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Automotive Battery Packs

2013-04-08
2013-01-1539
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a freely-distributed, MATLAB/Simulink-based desktop application. Version 1.0 of the ALPHA tool was applicable only to conventional, non-hybrid vehicles and was used to evaluate off-cycle technology such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies for the 2017-2025 LD GHG and Fuel Economy rule. The next version of the ALPHA tool extends its modeling capabilities to include power-split and P2 parallel hybrid electric vehicles and their battery pack energy storage systems. Future versions of ALPHA will incorporate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) architectures.
Journal Article

Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from a Modern Diesel Engine Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Filters

2013-04-08
2013-01-1778
Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (CDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa CDD/F homologues, twelve WHO 2005 chlorinated biphenyls (CB) congeners, mono-nona CB homologues, and nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a model year 2008 Cummins ISB engine equipped with aftertreatment including a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and wall flow copper or iron urea selective catalytic reduction filter (SCRF) were investigated. These systems differ from a traditional flow through urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst because they place copper or iron catalyst sites in close proximity to filter-trapped particulate matter. These conditions could favor de novo synthesis of dioxins and furans. The results were compared to previously published results of modern diesel engines equipped with a DOC, catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) and flow through urea SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

New Exhaust Catalyst Emission Control Systems for Nonroad SI Class I Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1900
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using integrated catalyst-muffler exhaust systems for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class I engines (sub-19 kW, less than 225 cc). Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for 4 different Class I engine families. Passive secondary air-injection systems were used with most of the systems to provide an exhaust feed-gas composition that was slightly rich of stoichiometry when used in conjunction with unmodified “Phase 2” carburetor A/F ratio calibrations. Catalyst sizing, PGM loading, and secondary-air venturi design were selected to limit CO oxidation and the typically resultant high heat rejection at high load operating points while still providing good NOx and HC emission control. Infrared thermal imaging was used to assess heat rejection at the EPA A-cycle operational points and during simulated hot soaks for selected configurations.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Advanced Emission Controls for Nonroad SI Class II Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1899
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has completed a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using low-cost engine management systems and modern, high-efficiency exhaust catalysts for nonroad spark ignition gasoline Class II engines (sub-19 kW, greater than 225 cc). Low-cost electronic engine management and fuel injection systems originally developed for motor-scooter and small motorcycle applications were installed on two 500cc single-cylinder spark-ignition lawn-and-garden engines. Integrated catalyst-muffler systems were developed for both engines and fuel control was calibrated to achieve emission control goals while maintaining or improving fuel consumption, engine durability and performance. NOx+HC emissions were reduced approximately 75% and brake-specific fuel-consumption improved by 6 to 12%. .
Technical Paper

Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2005-04-11
2005-01-1755
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

Progress in the Development of Tier 2 Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-1791
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has been conducting a test program to evaluate efforts to bring light-duty diesel vehicles into compliance with U.S. Federal Tier 2 Light-duty Emission Standards. Between April 2002 and October 2003, five advanced prototype light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with NOx adsorption catalysts, PM-traps, and diesel oxidation catalysts were tested at the U.S. EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emission Laboratory (NVFEL). The vehicle testing was conducted using low sulfur (<15 ppm) diesel fuel. All of the tested vehicles demonstrated the considerable progress recently made by vehicle manufacturers and systems integrators in applying advanced NOx and PM emission control technology to light duty diesel vehicles in anticipation of the U.S. Light-duty Tier 2 emission standards. PM emissions for all of the vehicles were well below the Tier 2 Bin-5 emission levels.
Technical Paper

Testing of the Toyota Avensis DPNR at U.S. EPA-NVFEL

2002-10-21
2002-01-2877
An advanced prototype of the Toyota Avensis light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with a version of Toyota's DPNR exhaust emission control system was tested at the U.S. EPA - NVFEL facility. The vehicle is under development by Toyota Motor Corporation for introduction in Europe. While this particular model is not anticipated to be offered for sale in the U.S., EPA evaluated the vehicle to gauge the current state of light-duty diesel vehicle technology. The vehicle was tested using a low sulfur (6 ppm) diesel fuel with a cetane number that was improved to near typical European levels (∼50 cetane). Emission levels over the FTP75 consistent with U.S. Federal Light-Duty Tier 2 emission standards were achieved at levels of fuel economy that are competitive with current light-duty diesel passenger vehicles offered for sale in the U.S. The vehicle was tested with relatively low accumulated mileage.
Technical Paper

NOx Adsorber Desulfation Techniques for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

2002-10-21
2002-01-2871
A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine, equipped with a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters (CDPF) and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration, was evaluated with the goal of developing desulfation strategies for in-use NOx adsorber desulfation. NOx adsorber desulfation was accomplished by providing reductant via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system and exhaust flow via an exhaust bypass valve. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed reductant injection and adsorber desulfation to occur under very low space velocity conditions. An exhaust bypass valve connecting the dual path configuration upstream of the catalyzed diesel particulate filters allowed controlled addition of exhaust into the desulfating pathway for desulfation method development.
Technical Paper

High-Efficiency NOx and PM Exhaust Emission Control for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines - Part Two

2001-09-24
2001-01-3619
A 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine was modified to approximate the emissions performance of a MY 2004 US heavy-duty on-highway engine. The engine was tested with and without a diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration. The goal of this project was to achieve hot-start HDDE-FTP emissions consistent with the recently announced 2007 U.S. heavy-duty engine emissions standards. Supply of hydrocarbon reductant for NOx adsorber regeneration was accomplished via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed injection and adsorber regeneration to occur under very low space velocity conditions. NOx and PM emissions over the hot-start portion of the HDDE-FTP transient cycle were 0.13 g/bhp-hr and less than 0.002 g/bhp-hr, respectively.
Technical Paper

High-Efficiency NOx and PM Exhaust Emission Control for Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-1351
A diesel exhaust emission control system consisting of catalyzed diesel particulate filters and NOx adsorber catalysts arranged in a dual-path configuration was developed and evaluated using a 1999-specification 5.9 liter medium-heavy-duty diesel engine. NOx adsorber regeneration was accomplished via a secondary exhaust fuel injection system. An alternating restriction of the exhaust flow between the two flow paths allowed injection and adsorber regeneration to occur under very low space velocity conditions. NOx and PM reductions in excess of 90% were observed over a broad range of steady-state operating conditions and over the hot-start HDDE-FTP transient cycle.
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