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Technical Paper

The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future: Part II

2018-04-03
2018-01-0939
It is anticipated that future gasoline engines will have improved mechanical efficiency and consequently lower exhaust temperatures at low load conditions, although the exhaust temperatures at high load conditions are expected to remain the same or even increase due to the increasing use of downsized turbocharged engines. In 2014, a collaborative project was initiated at Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the University of Michigan to develop three-way catalysts with improved performance at low temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and is intended to show progress toward the USDRIVE target of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150 °C after high mileage aging. The testing protocols specified by the USDRIVE ACEC team for stoichiometric S-GDI engines were utilized during the evaluation of experimental catalysts at all three facilities.
Journal Article

The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for High Efficiency Gasoline Engines of the Future

2017-03-28
2017-01-0918
In anticipation that future gasoline engines will have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation, a project was initiated in 2014 to develop three-way catalysts (TWC) with improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the durability of current TWCs. This project is a collaboration between Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan and is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The ultimate goal is to show progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at 150°C after high mileage aging. A reactor was set up at Ford to follow the catalyst testing protocols established by the USDRIVE ACEC tech team for evaluating catalysts for stoichiometric gasoline direct-injection (S-GDI) engines; this protocol specifies a stoichiometric blend of CO/H2, NO, C3H6, C2H4, C3H8, O2, H2O, and CO2 for the evaluations.
Journal Article

TWC+LNT/SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1006
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
Journal Article

Passive TWC+SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1004
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. In this system, the TWC generates the NH3 for the SCR catalyst from the feedgas NOx during rich operation. Therefore, this approach benefits from high feedgas NOx during rich operation to generate high levels of NH3 quickly and low feedgas NOx during lean operation for a low rate of NH3 consumption. It was assumed that the exhaust system needed to include a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and an U/B SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards during the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. With a 30 s lean/10 s rich cycle and 200 ppm NO lean, 1500 ppm NO rich and the equivalent of 3.3 L of SCR volume were required to satisfy the NOx target.
Technical Paper

LNT+SCR Catalyst Systems Optimized for NOx Conversion on Diesel Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0305
A laboratory study was performed to assess the effectiveness of LNT+SCR systems for NOx control in lean exhaust. The effects of the catalyst system length and the spatial configuration of the LNT & SCR catalysts were evaluated for their effects on the NOx conversion, NH₃ yield, N₂O yield, and HC conversion. It was found that multi-zone catalyst architectures with four or eight alternating LNT and SCR catalyst zones had equivalent gross NOx conversion, lower NH₃ and N₂O yield, and significantly higher net conversion of NOx to N₂ than an all-LNT design or a standard LNT+SCR configuration, where all of the SCR volume is placed downstream of the LNT. The lower NH₃ emissions of the two multi-zone designs relative to the standard LNT+SCR design were attributed to the improved balance of NOx and NH₃ in the SCR zones.
Journal Article

The Effects of Sulfur Poisoning and Desulfation Temperature on the NOx Conversion of LNT+SCR Systems for Diesel Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0300
A laboratory study was performed to assess the effects of sulfur poisoning and desulfation temperature on the NO conversion of a LNT+(Cu/SCR) in-situ system. Four LNT+(Cu/SCR) systems were aged for 4.5 hours without sulfur at 600, 700, 750, and 800°C using A/F ratio modulations to represent 23K miles of desulfations at different temperatures. NO conversion tests were performed on the LNT alone and on the LNT+SCR system using a 60 s lean/5 s rich cycle. The catalysts were then sulfur-poisoned at 400°C and desulfated four times and re-evaluated on the 60/5 tests. This test sequence was repeated 3 more times to represent 100K miles of desulfations. After simulating 23K miles of desulfations, the Cu-based SCR catalysts improved the NO conversion of the LNT at low temperatures (e.g., 300°C), although the benefit decreased as the desulfation temperature increased from 600°C to 800°C.
Journal Article

The Poisoning and Desulfation Characteristics of Iron and Copper SCR Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-0900
A laboratory study was performed to assess the effects of SO2 poisoning on the NOx conversion of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) SCR catalysts. Thermally aged samples of the catalysts were poisoned with SO2 under lean conditions. At various times during the poisonings, the samples were evaluated for NOx conversion with NO and NH3 using lean temperature ramps. The low temperature NOx conversions of both catalysts decreased by 10 to 20% after 1 to 4 hours of poisoning but were stable with continued exposure to the SO2. The poisoned Cu SCR catalyst could be desulfated repeatedly with 5 minutes of lean operation at 600°C. Initially, the poisoned Fe SCR catalyst required 5 minutes of lean operation at 750°C to recover its maximum NOx conversion.
Journal Article

SCR Catalyst Systems Optimized for Lightoff and Steady-State Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0901
A laboratory study was performed to optimize a zoned configuration of an iron (Fe) SCR catalyst and a copper (Cu) SCR catalyst in order to provide high NOx conversion at lean A/F ratios over a broad range of temperature for diesel and lean-burn gasoline applications. With an optimized space velocity of 8,300 hr-1, a 67% (by volume) Fe section followed by a 33% Cu section provided at least 80% NOx conversion from approximately 230°C to 640°C when evaluated with 500 ppm NO and NH3. To improve the lean lightoff performance of the SCR catalyst system during a cold start, a Cu SCR catalyst that was 1/4 as long as the rear Cu SCR catalyst was placed in front of the Fe SCR catalyst. When evaluated with an excess of NH3 (NH3/NO ratio of 2.2), the Cu+Fe+Cu SCR system had significantly improved lightoff performance relative to the Fe+Cu SCR system, although the front Cu SCR catalyst did decrease the NOx conversion at temperatures above 475°C by oxidizing some of the NH3 to N2 or NO.
Journal Article

Selective Catalytic Reduction for Treating the NOx Emissions from Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines: Durability Assessment

2008-04-14
2008-01-0811
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential of using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH3 to treat the NOx emissions from lean-burn gasoline engines. A primary concern was the potential for hot rich exhaust conditions on the vehicle, as such conditions could degrade the zeolite-based SCR catalysts being developed for automotive applications. Samples of an iron/zeolite formulation were aged for 34 hours behind samples of a three-way catalyst (TWC) on a pulse-flame combustion reactor using different A/F ratio schedules that exposed the catalysts to either continuously lean operation, mostly stoichiometric operation, or mostly rich operation. For each A/F ratio schedule, separate SCR samples were aged with inlet temperatures of 750°C, 800°C, or 850°C. The aged SCR samples were evaluated for NOx conversion at 25K hr-1 during lean temperature ramps with 500 ppm NO and NH3.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Aging Temperature and PGM Loading on the NOx Storage Capacity of a Lean NOx Trap

2005-04-11
2005-01-1117
A laboratory aging study was performed on samples of a lean NOx trap with platinum group metal (PGM) loadings of 0.53, 1.06, 2.12, and 3.18 g/liter. The LNT samples were aged at inlet temperatures of 650°C, 750°C, 800°C, and 850°C behind samples of a three-way catalyst that were aged on a pulse-flame combustion reactor with a Ford-proprietary durability schedule representing 80,000 km of customer use. For all aging temperatures, higher PGM loadings were beneficial for low temperature NOx performance, attributable to an increase in the oxidation of NO to NO2. Conversely, lower PGM loadings were beneficial for high temperature NOx performance after aging at 650°C and 750°C, as higher loadings promoted the decomposition of the nitrates during lean operation and thereby decreased the NOx storage capability at high temperatures. Also, higher PGM loadings increased the OSC of the trap and thereby increased the purge requirements.
Technical Paper

An Engine Test to Measure the Oxygen Storage Capacity of a Catalyst

1996-10-01
961900
An engine-based test has been developed to measure the oxygen storage capacity of a catalyst. The test utilizes the difference in the engine-out and tailpipe A/F ratios following rich-to-lean and lean-to-rich A/F transitions in order to quantify the storage or release of oxygen. The technique also results in the determination of the water-gas shift constant for the tailpipe exhaust. The technique was used to measure the oxygen storage capacity of a fresh catalytic converter at inlet temperatures of 400, 500, and 600°C for catalyst volumes of 1.5L and 2.8L. The procedure was repeated after the converter had been aged at an inlet temperature of 800°C for 20, 40, and 60 hours. The oxygen storage capacities are related to the emissions performance of the converter on A/F ratio sweep tests. For the fresh converter, the calculated oxygen storage capacity increased with temperature.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converter Diagnosis Using the Catalyst Exotherm

1994-10-01
942058
A study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of using the catalyst exotherm to diagnose the emission performance of the catalytic converter. The exotherm was evaluated as a potential diagnostic for large volume underfloor converters as well as for small volume warmup converters. Emphasis was placed on the ability to properly diagnose the emission performance of the converters while the vehicle was driven under a variety of transient driving schedules. For this study, type K thermocouples were used for measuring the temperatures. To minimize the variability of the exotherm data during transient driving, the exotherm needs to be sampled under fairly stable exhaust flow conditions. If a transient maneuver such as an acceleration occurs, a stabilization time is required before the exotherm can be sampled. The steady-state HC conversion of underfloor catalytic converters correlated well with the exotherm measured at the rear of the catalyst over a large range of conversions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Catalyst Volume and Ceria Content on the Emission Performance and Oxygen Storage Capacity of Automotive Catalysts

1993-10-01
932666
A study was performed to assess the effects of the catalyst volume and the ceria content in the washcoat on the aged emission performance of underfloor catalytic converters containing platinum and rhodium. Catalyst volumes of 1.4 L and 2.8 L were evaluated, while the ceria level was varied from 0 to 60% of the weight of the washcoat. The concentration of noble metals (g/L) was the same for both catalyst volumes, so the larger volume also contained more noble metal. Catalyst performance was evaluated on an air/fuel ratio sweep test, at steady-state conditions on an engine, and on the FTP test. In light of the new catalyst monitoring requirements for OBD II, each catalyst was also evaluated at steady-state conditions using a dual oxygen sensor technique in order to produce an O2 sensor index. The evaluations were performed at several intermediate stages as the catalysts were aged on engines using high temperature durability schedules intended to simulate high mileage conditions.
Technical Paper

The Role of Ceria in Automotive Exhaust Catalysis and OBD-II Catalyst Monitoring

1993-03-01
931034
Ceria has become an increasingly important component in automotive exhaust catalysts over the past decade. Recently, with the proposal that measurements of oxygen storage be used for the on-board evaluation of catalyst performance for both low emission vehicles (LEV) and non-LEV vehicles, understanding the role of ceria and its deterioration with catalyst aging has become even more important. It is well established that ceria in an alumina support promotes oxygen storage/release by automotive catalysts under cycled air/fuel conditions, which in turn promotes the catalyst's conversion performance under those conditions. Another benefit of ceria is its enhancement of the catalytic activity for other reactions, such as the water-gas shift reaction under rich conditions. In addition, ceria may help catalyst durability by promoting precious metal dispersion and playing some role as a stabilizer of the support.
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