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Technical Paper

Outreach Activities of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2007-07-09
2007-01-3068
The CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) was constructed for collecting data on carbon transfer from the atmosphere to crops, livestock and humans by conducting material circulation experiments, including the habitation of humans and animals and growing crops which supply food and feed, within a closed environment. The main objective of the CEEF project involves understanding the transfer of radiocarbon in the environment via experiments using stable carbon isotopes. On the other hand, the project is also a good example demonstrating human life in ecosystem material circulation. Many people visited and toured the CEEF and the project has been introduced by the media. The candidate inhabitants, who were selected for the project following medical and psychological testing, are called “eco-nauts”. The CEEF project was introduced and eco-nauts participated in events with the intention of educating the public on the human impacts on an ecosystem made by a science museum.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model for the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility of CEEF

2006-07-17
2006-01-2125
Closure experiments will be conducted using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The CEEF behavioral Prediction System (CPS) has been developed to check the CEEF operation for the closure experiments in advance. For the development of CPS, a simulation program for CPEF had been developed and reported. A simulation program for CAHEF was developed, and combined with the simulation program for CPEF. This integrated simulation program was validated by data obtained from a habitation experiment conducted in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Air Circulation Confinement Experiments in the CEEF: Psychological Status in Eco-nauts through Repeated Seven-Day Habitations

2006-07-17
2006-01-2293
The Closed Ecology Experimental Facilities (CEEF), is designed to simulate material circulation, and is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans and animals. The first seven-day air circulated confinement experiments using the CEEF were conducted three times. The experiments included psychological monitoring of two crew members named “Eco-nauts”. Even though there was some trouble with the CEEF regarding the atmospheric gases (which one of the Eco-nauts discovered himself), all three experiments were completed without critical problems and both Eco-nauts maintained a stable psychological status. Through the experiments, it was found that the interior environment of the CEEF could fluctuate within short time periods, and that frequent monitoring by the instantaneous and sensitive Face Scale Test allowed scoring of the Eco-nauts' response to such fluctuations.
Technical Paper

Workloads and Environment of Closed Habitation Experiments in CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) and Physio-Psychological Changes in Habitants (Eco-Nauts) During the Experiments

2005-07-11
2005-01-3005
The Closed Ecological Experimental Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans and animals. In the experiments starting from FY2005, habitants referred to as eco-nauts will be exposed to complex workloads and various CEEF environmental factors, which may influence their physio-psychological state, and lower their performance. Therefore, preliminary experiments were conducted on the workload-matched (11.1h work, 168h, airlock open) and the environment-matched condition (6.9h work, 24h, air circulation) to monitor physio-psychological changes. As a result, both experiment types were conducted as scheduled without any major problems, and no serious physio-psychological disorders were observed in the eco-nauts. One week closed habitation experiments will be performed as a preliminary step toward much longer (max. 4 months) experiments.
Technical Paper

Matching of Gas Metabolism among Crop Community, Human and Animal in the CEEF

2003-07-07
2003-01-2452
Rating of daily amounts of CO2 and O2 exchange of crops, animals and humans to be involved in the long-term habitation experiments using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were carried out. Daily amounts of the CO2-absorption and O2-generation of crops including rice, soybeans and other 27 vegetables were estimated from data obtained from a sequential crop cultivation experiment conducted from August to December of FY2001. Daily amounts of O2-consumption and CO2-expiration of two female Shiba goats to be involved were estimated based on gas exchange determination conducted in FY2002. Daily amounts of CO2-expiration and O2-consumption of two persons to be involved were estimated based on correlation between respiration rate and heart rate, heart rate data during the simulated habitation in the CEEF and a tentative work schedule.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the CEEF Behavioral Prediction System

2003-07-07
2003-01-2547
For validation of operation schedules for the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), development of the CEEF behavioral prediction system (CPS) has been started. The CPS will be simulated using the CEEF operation schedule. The CPS will gather data on quantities of materials in each component of the CEEF and operational status of each component at the start of the simulation, and configure them as the initial conditions of the simulation. For requirements of experiments, the simulation program for the CPS should be easy to adapt for changes of components and object materials. Because the CEEF is a nonlinear system, available period of the simulation is important. A flexible algorithm for the changes was developed. The simulation was available for three days to validate.
Technical Paper

Simulation to Support an Integration Test Project of CEEF

2001-07-09
2001-01-2130
A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2336
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Model and Its Application to an Integration Test Project of CEEF

2000-07-10
2000-01-2334
Simulation of material circulation for a closed experiment using CEEF consisting of a plant and human system was performed. Initial set of materials contained in CEEF was decided by a decision procedure. Before the closure where the plant system is operated independently, the plant system (CPEF) needs gas exchange of O2 and CO2 with the outside. After the closure where the plant and human system are operated in a cooperation mode with mutual material exchange, no exchange of materials is needed. The closure time corresponds to the longest cultivation period to be cultivated in CPEF.
Technical Paper

Material Circulation Analysis of CEEF Through Simulation

1997-07-01
972297
The closed ecology experiment facilities(CEEF) are comprised of an animal breeding & habitation module, plant module, and a geo-hydrosphere module(currently being established), which are composed of physicochemical devices to allow almost all the material to be circulated. Partial test operations are now in progress with these kinds of equipment, and cooperative operations between an animal breeding & habitation module and plant module are expected to be started in the near future. Balance of the material and equipment performance as the whole of the system are being tested, and material circulation in a variety of operation modes is being examined. Keeping such a situation in mind, analysis is made in this report for material circulation in the plant module by itself for operations based on the equipment design data.
Technical Paper

Simulation Software of Material Circulation in a CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facility

1996-07-01
961500
A conceptual study for a computational simulator of material circulation in a CEEF was performed. CELSS such as the CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facility) which is under construction in the Institute for Environmental Sciences have many physico-chemical devices. To simplify their programming, many physico-chemical devices were classified into several function groups using C++, a specially designed programming language to support the object oriented programming technique. Based on the classifications, the simulation software was made and the simulation was performed. The simulation results predict that stable operation of CEEF can be obtained.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model on Physiological Processes of Candidate Crops in CEEF

1996-07-01
961499
A mathematical model was developed in order to predict quantities of CO2 and O2 gas exchange, transpiration, biomass production, food production and nutrient absorption by candidate crops in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) in which material recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) is to be made. This model includes effects of physical parameters such as light intensity, air temperature, humidity and atmospheric CO2 concentration on these processes and plant aging effect on these processes. Using results from experiments in which candidate crops were grown under controlled environment and data from literature, mathematical models for each crop was given physiological parameters. Then, changes in biomass and food accumulation, gas exchange and transpiration of each crop with time were calculated.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF (2)

1995-07-01
951581
A unique recovery system for NaCI (salt) from urine, which consists of electrodialysis (ED) and crystallization processes is proposed. The possibility of the mineral recovery included in urine is shown in a previous report. To improve the purity of the produced salt, pH control is needed as a pretreatment. By controlling pH of the feed solution to about 10, multivalent ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are crystallized as phosphate solids which can be separated by filtration. As well as raising the NaCI purity, this controls scaling b y multivalent ions.
Technical Paper

Material Flow Simulation Software for CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

1995-07-01
951537
IES (Institute for Environmental Sciences) is now constructing CEEF at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The simulation for material flow is made based on a system model of CEEF, which includes one person and 7 plant species of Rice, Soybean, Komatsuna, Sesame, Tomato, Potato and Buckwheat. In this simulation software, plants, human and their support systems are mathematically defined and material flows such as O2, N2, CO2, waters, fertilizers and organic matters are computed. This software simulates only material flow and but does not simulate thermal dynamics of the environment. The simulation result showed reasonable material flows in a closed system.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF

1994-06-01
941499
We propose a new recovery system for NaCl from human urine. The system has an electrodialysis (ED) part and a crystallization part. Separation and concentration characteristics of the system are discussed for fundamental experiments of the ED and crystallization parts. Concentrated NaCl-KCl mixed solution is obtained using the ED process from simulated oxidized urine and sweat which include Ca2+ and S042- ions. Then, the crystallization process is used to separate about 80% of the NaCl from the ED treated solution. The experimental studies indicate that the mineral recovery system we proposed can recover NaCl from waste water of a CEEF.
Technical Paper

Concept of Waste Transferring Mechanisms

1992-07-01
921239
Recycling human and animal excreta is an important part of the proposed Closed Ecology Experiment Facility (CEEF) in Japan. This paper introduces a conceptual design for the waste collection and transfer system. Mineral-rich wastes such as urine and wool grease must be separated from other wastes to recover the minerals. Solids and liquids also require separate handling methods. Our design uses inclined conveyer belts to separate feces and urine. A fluorocarbon polymer coating prevents wastes from sticking to the belt. In-line freezers are used to solidify liquid wastes and retard premature decomposition. A summary of available data on animal excreta is included, but there is a distinct shortage of useful information. This data is insignificant for usual biology or animal husbandry, but is essential for designing the self-contained environment.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery Systems for Humans in a CELSS

1992-07-01
921237
The recovery of important minerals, salt (NaCI) and potassium (K), in a closed system, namely CELSS is discussed. NaCI is needed for humans, but is potentially harmful to plants. Salt is recovered after wet oxidation of urine. Since Na and K have similar chemical and physical properties, their recovery or separation may require sophisticated methods. Na, CI and K ions are separated from other ions by electrodialysis with univalent selective ion-exchange membranes and then NaCI is obtained separately by a crystalization process. Preliminary experiment on crystalization of NaCI-KCl mixed solutions showed a good separation result.
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