Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Outline of Material Circulation — Closed Habitation Experiments Conducted in 2005 – 2007 Using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

2009-07-12
2009-01-2580
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for estimation of transfer of radionuclides from atmosphere to humans in the ecosystem. The first target among the radio-nuclides is 14C. In order to validate function of material circulation in an experimental system constructed in the CEEF, circulation of air constituents, water and materials in waste was demonstrated connecting the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Human habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the CEEF, since 2005 to 2007. The CPEF has a Plant Cultivation Module (PCM), which comprises of three plant chambers illuminated solely by artificial lighting, one plant chamber illuminated by both natural and artificial lighting, a space for preparation, and an airlock, and a physical/chemical material circulation system.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Water Circulation Based on Experimental Results from Sequential Crop Cultivation, Closed Goat Breeding and Simulated Habitation Using CEEF

2004-07-19
2004-01-2349
Closed habitation experiments are to be carried out using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) from FY2005 to FY2009. The last target of duration of closed habitation is four months. Preliminary study and testing have been conducted in order to carry out the closed habitation experiments. The CEEF has three closed plantation chambers (PC-A, B and C) with artificial lighting solely having each cultivation area of 30 m2 and a closed plantation chamber (PC-F) with both natural lighting and supplemental artificial lighting having a 60-m2 cultivation area. A ‘stable’ period of sequential crop cultivation was maintained for four weeks in a trial experiment conducted in FY2003 using the Plantation Module (PM), in which rice, soybean and crops including rice sapling, soybean sapling, soybean, peanuts and safflower were cultivated in PC-A, PC-B, PC-C and PC-F, respectively. Amount of total clean water input to PM was 741 L day−1 on the average for the period.
Technical Paper

Matching of Gas Metabolism among Crop Community, Human and Animal in the CEEF

2003-07-07
2003-01-2452
Rating of daily amounts of CO2 and O2 exchange of crops, animals and humans to be involved in the long-term habitation experiments using the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were carried out. Daily amounts of the CO2-absorption and O2-generation of crops including rice, soybeans and other 27 vegetables were estimated from data obtained from a sequential crop cultivation experiment conducted from August to December of FY2001. Daily amounts of O2-consumption and CO2-expiration of two female Shiba goats to be involved were estimated based on gas exchange determination conducted in FY2002. Daily amounts of CO2-expiration and O2-consumption of two persons to be involved were estimated based on correlation between respiration rate and heart rate, heart rate data during the simulated habitation in the CEEF and a tentative work schedule.
Technical Paper

Considerations of Material Circulation in CEEF Based on the Recent Operation Strategy

2003-07-07
2003-01-2453
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), with integrating the Closed Plantation Experiment Facilities (CPEF) and the Closed Animal Breading & Habitation Facilities (CABHF), closed habitation experiments without material exchange with the outside will be conducted after the 2005 fiscal year. Cultivation experiments of about 30 crops and the integrating test of the material circulation system required for the closed habitation experiments have been performed since 2000 fiscal year. Using data reported in these experiments, material circulation in CEEF is simulated based on the recent operation strategy, and the storage capacity needed for the buffer of an air processing subsystem was estimated. In order for two humans to dwell over 120 days, the storage capacities of the carbon dioxide tank, the oxygen tank, and the waste gas tank in CPEF, and the carbon dioxide tank and the oxygen tank in CABHF are 820 g, 2830 g, 4425 g, 1780 g, and 1792 g, respectively.
Technical Paper

Simulation to Support an Integration Test Project of CEEF

2001-07-09
2001-01-2130
A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.
Technical Paper

Plant Nutrient Solution Production Subsystem and Mineral Recycling in CEEF

2000-07-10
2000-01-2335
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), waste materials such as plant inedible parts, feces and urine of animal and human, and garbage are to be decomposed to inorganic materials by a physical and chemical (P/C) process; Wet Oxidation (W/O). It is known that significant part of nitrogen (N) in the waste materials is reduced to gaseous nitrogen (N2) through W/O process. There is also some deposition of minerals such as iron (Fe) and phosphorous (P) through W/O process. Nitrogen Fixation Subsystem (NFS) produces ammonia (NH3) which is one of end products of NFS, from N2 separated from module air and hydrogen (H2) derived from electrolyses of water, and also produces nitrate (HNO3) from a part of the NH3 and oxygen (O2) derived from electrolyses of water. As another end product of NFS, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced from the HNO3 and a part of the NH3.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2336
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
Technical Paper

Installation of Hydro-Sphere Experiment System

1999-07-12
1999-01-1984
As a part of CEEF, a hydro-sphere experiment system has been installed in the air-tight hydro-sphere chamber built in fiscal 1997. Environmental factors in the chamber such as air composition, temperature and humidity could be fully controlled from 360 to 2000ppmCO2, from 20 to 30°C and 70%RH respectively using air composite adjusting system and air-conditioner. In this chamber having 640m3, three aquariums having 20m3 volume each have been installed. One of those aquarium will be used for the sea water buffer, the other two will be used for breeding living organisms such as small animals and macro-algae. A water reclamation system also has been installed in addition to those aquariums, and sea water is to be circulated at the rate of 20m3/3days between those aquariums and this reclamation system in order to realize the simulated sea water eco-system. The water reclamation system is composed of a membrane filter and bio-filter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Small Disturbances Caused by Changes of Surrounding Conditions on the Small Positive Pressure Control System of the CEEF

1999-07-12
1999-01-1985
The closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) has a small positive pressure control system consisting of rubber buffers and a mechanical subsystem. In the present study, effects of small temperature disturbances caused by changes of surrounding conditions on the pressure control system are investigated experimentally and in numerical simulations. Though solar radiation causes a pressure disturbance in the facility, choosing the proper diameter of ducts which connect the rubber buffers to the modules, the rubber buffers can follow fluctuations of low frequency, like daily atmospheric fluctuations and pressure changes caused by temperature control of the facility’s air conditioners, and can cut off those of high frequency due to changes of environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

1997-07-01
972516
It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

The Initial Tests for Performance Evaluation of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

1997-07-01
972517
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) have been under construction in northern Japan since 1994. These facilities contain the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF), as well as other facilities, in all of which, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research and development can be conducted. The CPEF includes two Plant Cultivation Modules (PCMs), which contain a PCM consists of three 30m2 closed cultivation rooms illuminated solely by lamps and a 165.1m3 preparation room, and a PCM consists of a 60m2 closed cultivation room illuminated by natural light and supplemental lamps and a 88.8m3 preparation room, and a Material Circulation System (MCS). Measured rate of air exchange between a 30m2 cultivation room and the preparation room was 0.48% hour-1, and that for a 60m2 cultivation room was about 0.11% hour-1. Air leak rate of the PCM as a whole was less than 0.01% hour-1 under isothermal and equal pressure condition.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Ammonia and Ammonium Nitrate Production System in a Closed Ecological Experiment Facility

1997-07-01
972518
In CEEF(Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) which is the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility, the ammonia and ammonium nitrate production system is a nitrogen fixation system as a part of nitrogen circulation system. Nitrogen and water which are input materials to the system are processed to produce ammonia water and ammonium nitrate solution as raw materials of fertilizer for plant cultivation. The design basis of the system is to convert 125g/day of nitrogen to ammonia and ammonium nitrate based on the amount of one person's metabolism. Experiment of the system has been carried out and we have studied characteristics of the system.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Fixation System as a CELSS Subsystem for CEEF

1996-07-01
961418
The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Material Circulation Design Based on Organic Matter Analysis of Edible and Inedible Parts of Plants for CEEF

1996-07-01
961414
In order to verify the material circulation design for a Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities, CEEF, the organic element analysis of edible and inedible parts of the major candidate plants (rice, soybean, sesame and komatsuna (Brassica campestris)) has been carried out experimentally and by using food analysis data. In the experiment, rice, soybean and sesame were cultivated by hydroponics and soil culture for this purpose. The organic element analysis data from the food analysis data were made using empirical chemical equations formulated as to major nutriments by Volk and Rummel. The experimental results showed good agreement with those obtained from the food analysis data. Komatsuna has high nitrogen content. Inedible parts of rice, soybean and sesame have almost the same constituent ratio. The edible part of soybean contains five times as much nitrogen as its inedible part. Rice shows no significant difference between the edible and inedible parts.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model on Physiological Processes of Candidate Crops in CEEF

1996-07-01
961499
A mathematical model was developed in order to predict quantities of CO2 and O2 gas exchange, transpiration, biomass production, food production and nutrient absorption by candidate crops in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) in which material recycling in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) is to be made. This model includes effects of physical parameters such as light intensity, air temperature, humidity and atmospheric CO2 concentration on these processes and plant aging effect on these processes. Using results from experiments in which candidate crops were grown under controlled environment and data from literature, mathematical models for each crop was given physiological parameters. Then, changes in biomass and food accumulation, gas exchange and transpiration of each crop with time were calculated.
Technical Paper

Simulation Software of Material Circulation in a CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facility

1996-07-01
961500
A conceptual study for a computational simulator of material circulation in a CEEF was performed. CELSS such as the CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facility) which is under construction in the Institute for Environmental Sciences have many physico-chemical devices. To simplify their programming, many physico-chemical devices were classified into several function groups using C++, a specially designed programming language to support the object oriented programming technique. Based on the classifications, the simulation software was made and the simulation was performed. The simulation results predict that stable operation of CEEF can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Performance Test Data of Wet Oxidation Plant for CEEF - CEEF: Controlled Ecology Experiment Facilities

1996-07-01
961558
This waste management process must be capable of treating the various wastes generated within Controlled Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) and operate effectively in and environment in which carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, salts, and other important minerals, exit. The catalytic Wet Oxidation Process (W/O Process) is regarded to be the most feasible candidate process for such waste management. This paper clarifies the performance data and the design data of the actual device. By applying these comparison data, for example, water balance, insoluble part balance, organic part balance, and inorganic balance for CEEF, we were also able to confirm the usefulness and applicability of the actual Wet Oxidation Device.
Technical Paper

Material Flow Simulation Software for CEEF: Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

1995-07-01
951537
IES (Institute for Environmental Sciences) is now constructing CEEF at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The simulation for material flow is made based on a system model of CEEF, which includes one person and 7 plant species of Rice, Soybean, Komatsuna, Sesame, Tomato, Potato and Buckwheat. In this simulation software, plants, human and their support systems are mathematically defined and material flows such as O2, N2, CO2, waters, fertilizers and organic matters are computed. This software simulates only material flow and but does not simulate thermal dynamics of the environment. The simulation result showed reasonable material flows in a closed system.
Technical Paper

Construction of CEEF is Just Started CEEF:Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

1995-07-01
951584
Construction of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) is started in Rokkasho village of Aomori prefecture, the northern part of Honshu island in Japan. CEEF consist of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and Closed Geo-Hydrosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF) with capability to simulate ecological systems containing plants, animals, human, trees and sea living things. These biospecies are selected according to experimental plans and are maintained their lives in controlled environments. Recyclings of materials circulating in the closed system of CEEF are made mainly utilizing physical chemical treatments. The construction of CEEF will be completed by 1998. This paper mainly describes design of CPEF.
Technical Paper

Study for Minimizing of Toxic Gaseous Waste in Wet Oxidation Process

1995-07-01
951579
Compared with other applicable processes such as incineration, the catalytic wet oxidation process is considered to be the most practically applicable waste treatment process for the CELSS. In this report, the quantity of carbon monoxide generated in the wet oxidation process is identified and a measure for carbon monoxide minimization is discussed. As a result of a bench test, it became apparent that a non-negligible quantity of carbon monoxide could be generated in the catalytic wet oxidation process. However, it can be expected that this CO content will be reduced to a safe level by applying the wet oxidation process catalyst reactor to CO oxidation.
X