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Technical Paper

Study on Realization of Dual Combustion Cycle by Lean Mixture and Direct Fuel Injection

2018-10-30
2018-32-0011
The purpose of this study is to realize dual-combustion cycle for gasoline engines. For the purpose, lean combustion and direct fuel injection were applied to small diesel engine. The lean gasoline-air mixture was provided and was ignited by small amount of pilot diesel fuel injection (constant volume combustion). Then, diesel fuel was injected by main injection and was burned with the remained oxygen after the lean combustion (diffusion combustion). The equivalence ratio 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 of mixture were used to avoid the spontaneous compression auto-ignition. The total equivalence ratio with supplied gasoline and diesel fuel was adjusted to 1.0. The base pilot injection timing was selected as the ignition of pre-mixture took place at T.D.C. and pilot injection timings were changed 2 degree before and behind of base timing. The main fuel injection timings were 50, 75 and 100% of the duration between pilot injection timing and T.D.C.
Technical Paper

An Effect of Bio Diesel Fuel for Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0088
The purpose of this study is to explore an effect of the coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and vegetable oil methyl ester (VME) on a low compression ratio diesel engine performance. CME and VME were produced from coconut oil and vegetable oil with methanol, respectively. Vegetable oil was assumed to contain 60 wt.% of soybean oil and 40 wt.% rapeseed oil. The engine performance was measured in the steady operating condition at 3600 rpm of engine speed. The ignition timings of CME and VME were advanced and the maximum cylinder pressures of CME and VME were higher as compared with the diesel fuel at low compression ratio, because CME and VME consisted of medium chain fatty acid methyl esters. The ignitability of CME was superior to VME, because CME consisted of saturated fatty acid. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel fuel was slightly higher than CME and VME at any compression ratios.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Practical Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0801
In recent years, it has been expected the conversion of wasted biomass to industry available energy. In this study, 80 wt.% of wood and 20 wt.% of polypropylene were liquefied by the mineral oil used as solvent. The liquefied material was distilled, and distillation fraction of temperature from 493 to 573 K was recognized as light oil fraction CLF (Cellulose Liquefaction Fuel) and that from 378 to 493 K was recognized as naphtha fraction CLF. CLFs were blended with light oil and, in engine performance test, mixing ratio of light oil fraction CLF was 5 wt.%, and in vehicle running test, weight mixing ratios were 5 or 10 wt.%. In engine performance test, indicator diagrams and rate of heat releases of light oil fraction CLF 5 wt.% mixed light oil were almost equivalent to those of light oil in all load conditions, and engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were also almost equivalent to light oil.
Technical Paper

Influence of Internal EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0807
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Conditions Producing Two-Stage Main Combustion Heat Release in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using a Gaseous Fuel Blend

2015-09-01
2015-01-1785
In this study, a detailed analysis was made of supercharged HCCI combustion using a two-component fuel blend of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel, and methane. The quantity of fuel injected and boost pressure were varied to investigate the equivalence ratio and operating region conducive to optimal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that varying the boost pressure according to the engine load and applying a suitable equivalence ratio induced two-stage main combustion over a wide load range, making it possible to avoid excessively rapid combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Blended Fuels of Propane and DME

2014-11-11
2014-32-0005
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Varying the Supercharging Pressure and Fuel Octane Number on Spark Ignition Engine Knocking using Spectroscopic Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization

2013-10-15
2013-32-9030
Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.
Technical Paper

An Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine - Improvement of Fuel Property by Cellulosic Liquefaction with Plastics -

2013-10-15
2013-32-9174
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
Journal Article

Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement of Knocking Combustion Accompanied by Cylinder Pressure Oscillations in an HCCI Engine

2013-10-15
2013-32-9166
Combustion experiments were conducted with an optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized for the purpose of making clear the characteristics that induce extremely rapid HCCI combustion and knocking accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations. The HCCI combustion regime was investigated in detail by high-speed in-cylinder visualization of autoignition and combustion and emission spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that increasing the equivalence ratio and advancing the ignition timing caused the maximum pressure rise rate and knocking intensity to increase. In moderate HCCI combustion, the autoignited flame was initially dispersed temporally and spatially in the cylinder and then gradually spread throughout the entire cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Compression Ignition Characteristics of FAME for Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0010
The purpose of this study is to clarify ignition characteristics and engine performance of FAME for 4-stroke diesel engine in low compression ratios. Diesel fuel and coconut oil methyl ester (CME) were selected as test fuels, because CME consisted of saturate FAMEs which were good ignition characteristics. To reduce the compression ratio, thin copperplates were inserted between cylinder head and cylinder block and the compression ratio was reduced from 20.6 that was standard to 15. The engine starting test and an ordinary engine performance test were made at 3600 min.-₁. In engine starting test, the engine was soaked at room temperature and the ignition timing of diesel fuel was remarkably delayed compared with CME. When the compression ratio was 16, for diesel fuel, the misfiring cycles were included during engine warming up. In case of 15 of compression ratio, the engine could not be started by diesel fuel; however the engine could be run by CME.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion Characteristics and Efficiency Improvement of a Supercharged HCCI Engine Achieved by Using the Different Ignition Characteristics of Gaseous Fuels

2012-10-23
2012-32-0075
This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging as possible means of overcoming these issues of HCCI combustion. Low-carbon gaseous fuels with clean emissions were used as the test fuels. The specific fuels used were dimethyl ether (DME, cetane number of 55 or higher) that autoignites easily And exhibits pronounced low-temperature oxidation reactions, methane (cetane number of 0) that does not autoignite readily and is the main component of natural gas which is regarded as petroleum substitute, and propane (cetane number of 5) that is a principal component of liquefied petroleum gas. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and methane produces a two-stage main combustion process under certain operating conditions, with the result that combustion is moderated.
Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

2011-11-08
2011-32-0606
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

2011-11-08
2011-32-0605
The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Blended Fuel of DME and Methane

2011-11-08
2011-32-0522
In this study, experiments were conducted using a blend of two types of fuel with different ignition characteristics. One was dimethyl ether (DME) that has a high cetane number, autoignites easily and displays low-temperature oxidation reaction mechanisms; the other was methane that has a cetane number of zero and does not autoignite easily. A mechanically driven supercharger was provided in the intake pipe to adjust the intake air pressure. Moreover, flame light in the combustion chamber was extracted using a system for observing light emission that occurred in the space between the cylinder head and the cylinder and in the bore direction of the piston crown. The results of previous studies conducted with a supercharged HCCI engine and a blended fuel of DME and methane have shown that heat release of the hot flame is divided into two stages and that combustion can be moderated by reducing the peak heat release rate (HRR).
Journal Article

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using a Blended Fuel

2011-11-08
2011-32-0521
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted much interest as a combustion system that can achieve both low emissions and high efficiency. But the operating region of HCCI combustion is narrow, and it is difficult to control the auto-ignition timing. This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging. The blended fuel consisted of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines, and methane, the main component of natural gas. A spectroscopic technique was used to measure the light emission of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber in order to ascertain the combustion characteristics. HCCI combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail in the present study by measuring this light emission spectrum.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using Spectroscopic Measurements and Chemical Kinetic Simulations: Effects of Fuel Composition, Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure on Low-temperature Oxidation Reactions and Autoignition

2011-11-08
2011-32-0524
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Study of Two-Stage High Temperature Heat Release Behavior in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using Blended Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1788
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Two-component Fuel

2010-09-28
2010-32-0098
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Journal Article

Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel (CLF) and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Blends for Diesel Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0080
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however CLF could be mixed with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and a diesel engine could be operated by CLF and FAME blends. In this study, CLF was divided into three fractions: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2) and 573 K or more (CLF3) by fractional distillation in order to find CLF fraction which was suitable for diesel engine, and coconuts oil methyl ester (CME) was used as FAME. In the fuel droplet combustion tests, the combustion durations of CLFs were longer than those of diesel fuel and CME, and the combustion duration increased as the distillation temperature range rose, because CLF contained a lot of flame-resisting components like aromatic compounds.
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