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Technical Paper

Integrated Chassis Control for Vehicle Stability under Various Road Friction Conditions

This paper presents an integrated chassis control method for vehicle stability under various road friction conditions without information on tire-road friction. For vehicle stability, vehicle with an integrated chassis control needs to cope with the various road friction conditions. One of the chassis control method under various road conditions is to determine and/or limit control inputs based on tire-road friction coefficient. The tire-road friction coefficient, however, is difficult to estimate and still a challenging task. The key idea for the proposed method without the estimation of the tire-road friction coefficient is to analyze and control vehicle states based on a tire slip angle - tire force phase plane, i.e. based on these vehicle responses: tire forces and tire slip angles of front/rear wheels.
Technical Paper

Validation of Automotive Body ECU Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

As an effective approach for the design, implementation and test of control systems, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test has been used in many research areas. This paper describes a real-time HIL simulation test for an automotive electronic control system. The HIL system proposed in this paper consists of three parts: real-time target hardware, electronic control unit (ECU) of the automotive electronic control systems and a signal-conditioning unit which regulates the voltage levels between real-time target and ECU. The HIL simulation evaluates mechanical and electronic behaviors in real time using off-line simulation models by interfacing real-target with electrical control units via interface box. The model has been developed by MATLAB/Simulink. The model is composed of mechanical part which predicts dynamic behaviors and electronic part to calculate the motor speeds, current and electronic loads under the various conditions.
Journal Article

Integrated Chassis Control for Enhancement of High Speed Cornering Performance

This paper describes an Integrated Chassis Control (ICC) strategy for improving high speed cornering performance by integration of Electronics Stability Control (ESC), Four Wheel Drive (4WD), and Active Roll Control System (ARS). In this study, an analysis of various chassis modules was conducted to prove the control strategies at the limits of handling. The analysis is focused to maximize the longitudinal velocity for minimum lap time and ensure the vehicle lateral stability in cornering. The proposed Integrated Chassis Control algorithm consists of a supervisor, vehicle motion control algorithms, and a coordinator. The supervisor monitors the vehicle status and determines desired vehicle motions such as a desired yaw rate, longitudinal acceleration and desired roll motion. The target longitudinal acceleration is determined based on the driver's intention and vehicle current state to ensure the vehicle lateral stability in high speed maneuvering.
Journal Article

Design and Evaluation of Emergency Driving Support Using Motor Driven Power Steering and Differential Braking on a Virtual Test Track

This paper presents the design and evaluation of an emergency driving support (EDS) algorithm. The control objective is to assist driver's collision avoidance maneuver to overcome a hazardous situation. To support driver, electrically controllable chassis components such as motor driven power steering (MDPS) and differential braking and surrounding sensor systems such as radar and camera are used. The EDS algorithm is designed for 3 parts: monitoring, decision, and control. The proposed EDS algorithm recognizes a collision danger using minimum lateral acceleration to avoid collision and time-to-collision (TTC) and driver's intention using sensor systems. The control mode is determined using the indices from monitoring process and the collision avoidance trajectory is derived with trapezoidal acceleration profile (TAP).
Journal Article

Design of a Model Reference Cruise Control Algorithm

A methodology to design a model free cruise control algorithm(MFCC) is presented in this paper. General cruise control algorithms require lots of vehicle parameters to control the power train and the brake system, that makes control system complicate. Moreover, when the target vehicle is changed, the vehicle parameters should be reinvestigated in order to apply the cruise control algorithm to the subject vehicle. To overcome these disadvantages of the conventional cruise control algorithm, MFCC algorithm has been developed. The algorithm directly determines the throttle, brake inputs based on the reference model parameters such as clearance, relative velocity, and subject vehicle acceleration. This simple structure facilitates human centered design of cruise controller and makes it easy to apply control algorithm to various vehicles without reinvestigation of vehicle parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Driving Control Algorithm and Performance Verification Using Real-Time Simulator for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

This paper describes development and performance verification of a driving control algorithm for a 6 wheel driving and 6 wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle using a real-time simulator. This control algorithm is developed to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability under high speed driving conditions. The driving controller consists of stability decision, upper, lower level and wheel slip controller. The stability decision algorithm determines desired longitudinal acceleration and reference yaw rate in order to maintain lateral and roll stability using G-vectoring method. Upper level controller is designed to obtain reference longitudinal net force, yaw moment and front/middle steering angles. The longitudinal net force is calculated to satisfy the reference longitudinal acceleration by the PID control theory. The reference yaw moment is determined to satisfy the reference yaw rate using sliding control theory. Lower level controller determines distributed tractive/braking torques.
Journal Article

An Investigation into Multi-Core Architectures to Improve a Processing Performance of the Unified Chassis Control Algorithms

This paper describes an investigation into multi-core processing architecture for implementation of a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) algorithm. The multi-core architecture is suggested to reduce the operating load and maximization of the reliability to improve of the UCC system performance. For the purpose of this study, the proposed multi-core architecture supports distributed control with analytical and physical redundancy capabilities. In this paper, the UCC algorithm embedded in electronic control unit (ECU) is comprised of three parts; a supervisor, a main controller, and fault detection/ isolation/ tolerance control (FDI/FTC). An ECU is configured by three processors, and a control area network (CAN) is also implemented for hardware-in-the-loop (HILS) evaluation. Two types of multi-core architectures such as distributed processing, and triple voting are implemented to investigate the performance and reliability.
Journal Article

Development of Driving Control System Based on Optimal Distribution for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

This paper describes a driving controller to improve vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability for a six wheel driving / six wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle. The driving controller consists of upper and lower level controller. The upper level controller based on sliding control theory determines front, middle steering angle, additional net yaw moment and longitudinal net force according to reference velocity and steering of a manual driving, remote control and autonomous controller. The lower level controller takes desired longitudinal net force, yaw moment and tire force information as an input and determines additional front steering angle and distributed longitudinal tire force on each wheel. This controller is based on optimal distribution control and has considered the friction circle related to vertical tire force and friction coefficient acting on the road and tire.
Journal Article

Skid Steering based Driving Control of a Robotic Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drives

This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on a skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The RVAS is a kind of unmanned ground vehicle based on a skid steering using independent in-wheel drive at each wheel. The driving control algorithm consists of four parts: a speed controller for following a desired speed, a lateral motion controller that computes a yaw moment input to track a desired yaw rate or a desired trajectory according to the control mode, a longitudinal tire force distribution algorithm that determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and a wheel torque controller that determines a wheel torque command at each wheel in order to keep the slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as to track the desired tire force. The longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are required for the optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into Unified Chassis Control based on Correlation with Longitudinal/Lateral Tire Force Behavior

This paper presents a Unified Chassis Control (UCC) strategy to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability by integrating Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Active Front Steering (AFS). The UCC architecture consists of two parts: an estimator and a controller. The estimator is designed to estimate longitudinal and lateral tire forces and the controller is designed in two stages, namely, an upper level controller and a lower level controller. The upper level controller, provides the desired yaw moment for vehicle lateral stability by adopting a sliding control method. The lower level controller, provides the integration method of the AFS and ESC strategies for the desired yaw moment and is designed by optimal tire force coordination.
Journal Article

Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Avoidance in Multi-Vehicle Traffic Situations

This paper presents a longitudinal control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) with collision avoidance (CA) in multiple vehicle traffic situations. The proposed algorithm consists of a multi-target tracking filter, a primary target selection algorithm and an integrated ACC/CA system. The multi-target tracking filter is used to smooth the sensor signal, and makes it possible to apply to a control system. The primary target selection algorithm decides an in-lane target and provides the information to an integrated ACC/CA system in order to drive a subject vehicle smoothly and improve safety in complex traffic situations. Finally, the integrated ACC/CA system computes the desired acceleration. The performance and safety benefits of the multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is investigated via simulations using real data on driving. Simulation results show that the response of multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is more smooth and safer at a change of traffic situations.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-Simulator-based Evaluation of Combined State Estimator and Vehicle Stability Control Algorithm

The performance of an integrated Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system depends on not only control logic itself, but also the performance of state estimator and control threshold. In conventional VSCs, a control threshold is designed by vehicle characteristics and is centered on average drivers. A VSC algorithm with variable control threshold has been investigated in this study. The control threshold can be determined by phase plane analysis of side slip angle and angular velocity. Vehicle side slip angle estimator has been evaluated using test data. Estimated side slip angle has been used in the determination of the control threshold. The performance of the proposed VSC algorithm has been investigated by human-in-the-loop simulation using a vehicle simulator. The simulation results show that the control threshold has to be determined with respect to the driver steering characteristics.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Evaluation of Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) Systems using a Combined Vehicle and Human Driving Model

This paper presents a closed-loop evaluation of the Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) systems using a vehicle simulator. Human driver-VSC interactions have been investigated under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. Braking control inputs for vehicle stability enhancement have been directly derived from the sliding control law based on vehicle planar motion equations with differential braking. A driving simulator which consists of a three-dimensional vehicle dynamic model, interface between human driver and vehicle simulator, three-dimensional animation program and a visual display has been validated using actual vehicle driving test data. Real-time human-in-the loop simulation results in realistic driving situations have shown that the proposed controller reduces driving effort and enhances vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driving Load Estimation for Longitudinal Motion Control

An estimation algorithm for vehicle driving load has been proposed in this paper. Driving load is an important factor in a vehicle's longitudinal motion control. An approach using an observer is introduced to estimate driving load based on inexpensive RPM sensors currently being used in production vehicles. Also, the new torque estimation technique using neural network has been incorporated in this estimation algorithm to achieve better performance over variations in the automotive power transmissions process. The effectiveness of the observer-based method is demonstrated through the use of a nonlinear full vehicle simulation model in various scenarios. The proposed method using an observer has good performance, both over modeling error in powertrain system and under the uncertain environment of a running vehicle.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a CW/CA System for Automobiles

CW/CA (Collision Warning /Collision Avoidance) Systems have been an active research and development area as interests and demands for the advanced vehicle increase. A CW/CA ‘Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HiLS)’ system has been designed and used to test a CW/CA algorithm, radar sensors, and warning displays under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. A CW/CA algorithm has two parts. One is a distance decision algorithm that determines the critical warning and braking distance and the other is a brake control algorithm for collision avoidance. The CW/CA HiLS system consists of a controller in which a DSP chip is installed, a preceding vehicle simulator, a radar sensor and a warning display. The controller calculates velocities of the preceding and following vehicles, relative distance and relative velocity of the vehicles using vehicle simulation models. The relative distance and velocity are applied to the vehicle simulator that is controlled by a DC motor.