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Technical Paper

Ignition Delay Model of Multiple Injections in CI Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0071
In compression ignition engines, the combustion starts after the ignition delay period from the start of injection. The degree of mixing between air and fuel during this period impacts combustion characteristics, such as the pressure rise rate, which worsens combustion noise. The formation of soot and nitrogen oxides can also be affected. In addition, ignition delay is essential to estimate the in-cylinder pressure. Therefore, there have been many researches performed to estimate the ignition delay for model-based control applications considering the above relations. In this study, a semiempirical and 0-dimensional ignition delay model is developed for real-time control applications. As the ignition delay consists of physical and chemical delays in compression ignition engines, the integrated ignition delay model considers both of these variables.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effect of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emission Characteristics under Cold Start Using In-cylinder Visualization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0822
Due to the direct injection of fuel into a combustion chamber, particulate emission is a challenge in DISI engines. Specifically, a significant amount of particulate emission is produced under the cold start condition. In this research, the main interest was to investigate particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition because it is one of the significant particulate-emissionproducing stages under the cold start condition. A single-cylinder optically accessible engine was used to investigate the effect of injection strategies on particulate emission characteristics under the catalyst heating condition. The split injection strategy was applied during intake stroke with various injection pressures and injection timings. Using luminosity analysis of the soot radiation during combustion, the particulate formation characteristics of each injection strategy were studied. Moreover, the factors that affect PM formation were analyzed via fuel injection visualization.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0561
Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Engine Noise According to EGR Rate Change during Transient Operation

2015-06-15
2015-01-2296
Diesel engine noise is classified into mechanical noise, flow dynamic noise and combustion noise. Among these, combustion noise level is higher than the others due to the high compression ratio of diesel combustion and auto ignition. The injected fuel is mixed with air in the ignition delay process, followed by simultaneous ignition of the premixed mixture. This process results in a rapid pressure rise, which is the main source of combustion noise. The amount of fuel burned during premixed combustion is mainly affected by the ignition delay. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate has an impact on ignition delay, and thus, it influences the combustion noise characteristics. Therefore, during the transient state, the combustion noise characteristics change as the EGR rate deviates from the target value. In this study, the effect of the EGR rate deviation during the transient state of the combustion noise is examined. A 1.6 liter diesel engine with a VGT was used for the experiment.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Injection and Operating Strategies on Diesel Single Cylinder Engine under JP-8 and Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0844
The alternative fuel jet propellant 8 (JP-8, NATO F-34) can be used as an auto-ignition source instead of diesel. Because it has a higher volatility than diesel, it provides a better air-fuel premixing condition than a conventional diesel engine, which can be attributed to a reduction in particulate matter (PM). In homogeneous charged compression ignition (HCCI) or dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion or reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), nitrogen oxides (NOx) can also be reduced by supplying external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In this research, the diesel and JP-8 injection strategies under conventional condition and dual-fuel PCCI combustion with and without external EGR was conducted. Two tests of dual-fuel (JP-8 and propane) PCCI were conducted at a low engine speed and load (1,500 rpm/IMEP 0.55 MPa). The first test was performed by advancing the main injection timing from BTDC 5 to 35 CA to obtain the emissions characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Operating Strategy for the Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion with Propane and Diesel under a High EGR Rate Condition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0854
In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa).
Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions Reduction through Dual-Fuel Combustion with Propane in a Compression Ignition Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2669
Novel Diesel combustion concepts such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) promise lower NOx and PM emissions than those of conventional Diesel combustion. RCCI, which can be implemented using low-reactivity fuels such as gasoline or gases and high-reactivity fuels such as Diesel, has the potential to achieve extremely low emissions and improved thermal efficiency. However, to achieve RCCI combustion, a higher boost pressure than that of a conventional engine is required because a high EGR rate and a lean mixture are necessary to achieve a low combustion temperature. However, higher boost pressures can cause damage to intake systems. In this research, the addition of gaseous fuel to a CI engine is investigated to reduce engine emissions, mainly NOx and PM emissions, with the same IMEP level. Two different methods were evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Development of Real-time NOx Estimation Model and its Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-0243
To meet the stringent emission regulations on diesel engines, engine-out emissions have been lowered by adapting new combustion concepts such as low-temperature combustion and after-treatment systems have also been used to reduce tailpipe emissions. To optimize the control of both in-cylinder combustion and the efficiency of an after treatment system to reduce NOx, the amount of real-time NOx emissions should be determined. Therefore, in previous studies, the authors developed a real-time NO estimation model based on the in-cylinder pressure and the data available from the ECU during engine operation. The model was evaluated by comparing its results with a CFD model, which agreed well. Then, the model was implemented on an embedded system which allows real-time applications, and was verified on a 2.2-liter diesel engine. The model showed good agreement with the experimental results at various steady-state conditions and simple transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction using a Close Post Injection Strategy with a Modified Nozzle and Piston Bowl Geometry for a Heavy EGR Rate

2012-04-16
2012-01-0681
As EURO-6 regulations will be enforced in 2014, the reduction of NOx emission while maintaining low PM emission levels becomes an important topic in current diesel engine research. EGR is the most effective way to reduce the NOx emission because EGR has a dilution and thermal effect as a means to reduce the oxygen concentration and combustion temperature. Although EGR is useful in reducing the NOx emission, it suffers from a higher level of CO and THC emissions, which indicates a low combustion efficiency and poor fuel consumption. Therefore, in this research, a close post injection strategy, which is implemented using main injection and post injection, is introduced to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce PM emission under a high EGR rate. In addition, a modified hardware configuration using a double-row nozzle and a two-staged piston bowl geometry is adapted to improve the effect of the close post injection.
Technical Paper

Study on the Effects of the In-Cylinder EGR Stratification on NOx and Soot Emissions in Diesel Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0021
Much research has been devoted to reducing NOx and soot emissions simultaneously in diesel engines. The low temperature combustion (LTC) concept has the potential to reduce these emissions at the same time, but it has limitations to its commercialization. In-cylinder EGR stratification is another combustion concept meant to reduce both types of emissions simultaneously using non-uniform in-cylinder EGR gas distribution. The EGR stratification concept uses a locally high EGR region of the in-cylinder so that the emissions can be reduced without increasing the overall EGR rate. In this study, the EGR stratification concept was improved with a CFD-based analysis. First, a two-step piston was developed to maximize the stratified EGR effect. Then, the feasibility of combustion and emission control by stratified EGR was evaluated under cases of artificially distributed EGR stratification and conventional diesel engine conditions.
Journal Article

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Ethanol Blended Gasoline in a Spray Guided DISI Engine under Lean Stratified Operation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2152
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Needle Response and Controlled Injection Rate Shape Characteristics in a Piezo-driven Diesel Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-1119
The More precise control of the multiple-injection is required in common-rail injection system of direct injection diesel engine to meet the low NOx emission and optimal PM filter system. The main parameter for obtaining the multiple-injections is the mechanism controlling the injector needle energizing and movement. In this study, a piezo-driven diesel injector, as a new method driven by piezoelectric energy, has been applied with a purpose to develop the analysis model of the piezo actuator to predict the dynamics characteristics of the hydraulic component (injector) by using the AMESim code and to evaluate the effect of this control capability on spray formation processes. Aimed at simulating the hydraulic behavior of the piezo-driven injector, the circuit model has been developed and verified by comparison with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Spray Angle and Piston Bowl Shape on Diesel Engine Soot Emissions Using 3-D CFD Simulation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2117
In an HSDI Diesel engine, fuel can be injected to the combustion chamber earlier as a strategy to reduce NOx and soot emissions. However, in the case of early injection the in-cylinder pressure and temperature during injection are much lower than those of normal injection conditions. As a result, wall impingement can occur if the conventional spray angle and piston bowl shape are maintained. In this study, 3-D CFD simulation was used to modify the spray angle of the injector and the piston bowl shape so that wall impingement was minimized, and soot emissions were reduced. The wall impingement model was used to simulate the behavior of impinged droplets. In order to predict the performance and emissions of the engine, a flamelet combustion model with the kinetic chemical mechanism for NOx and soot was used. A reduction in soot emissions was achieved with the modification of the spray angle and piston bowl shape.
Technical Paper

Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model of DME for HCCI Combustion

2003-05-19
2003-01-1822
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion engines could have a thermal efficiency as high as that of conventional compression-ignition engines and the production of low emissions of ultra-low oxides of NOx and PM. HCCI engines can operate on most alternative fuels, especially, dimethyl ether which has been tested as possible diesel fuel for its simultaneously reduced NOx and PM emissions. However, to adjust HCCI combustion to practical engines, the main problem about the HCCI engine must be solved; control of its ignition timing and burn rate over a range of engine speeds and loads. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been used to predict the combustion characteristics. But it is difficult to apply detailed chemical kinetic mechanism to simulate practical engines because of its high complexity coupled with multidimensional fluid dynamic models. Thus, reduced chemical kinetic modeling is desirable.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1910
The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.
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