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Technical Paper

System Identification, Trajectory Optimization and MPC for Time Optimal Turbocharger Testing in Gas-Stands with Unknown Maps

2019-04-02
2019-01-0321
Turbocharger testing is a time consuming process, and as rapid-prototyping technology advances, so must other areas in the development chain. As an example, in one study a compressor map took over 34 hours to measure. In this paper, an effort to combat the main bottleneck of turbocharger testing, namely the thermal inertia, is made. When changing operating point during the measurement process, several minutes can be required before the turbocharger components reach temperature steady state. In an earlier paper, a method based on non-linear trajectory optimization was developed that significantly reduced the testing time required to produce compressor performance maps. The time was reduced by a factor of over 60, compared to waiting for the system to reach steady state with constant inputs. However, the method required a model of the turbocharger. This paper extends the method with system identification and model predictive control (MPC).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Aftertreatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0989
Exhaust aftertreatment systems are essential components in modern powertrains, needed to reach the low legislated levels of NOx and soot emissions. A well designed diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system can have NOx conversion rates above 95%. However, to achieve high conversion the aftertreatment system must be warm. Because of this, large parts of the total NOx emissions come from cold starts where the engine has been turned off long enough for the aftertreatment system to cool down and loose its capacity to reduce NOx. It is therefore important to understand how the aftertreatment cools down when the engine in turned off. Experimental data for a catalyst cool-down process is presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that it is important to capture the spatial distribution of temperatures both in axial and radial directions. The data and analysis are used to design a catalyst thermal model that can be used for model based catalyst temperature monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Impact on Diesel Electric Powertrain Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0965
When electrifying the powertrain, there arises an opportunity to revise the traditional turbocharging trade-off between fuel-economy and transient performance. With the help of electrification, it might be possible to make the trade-off in favor of fuel economy, since transient response can be improved by the electric machine. The paper investigates this trade-off by looking at three turbocharger selections. A conventionally dimensioned turbocharger, an efficiency optimized turbocharger with maintained flow capacity, and an efficiency optimized turbocharger with increased flow capacity. The concepts are evaluated on the following cases: stationary operation, engine tip-in performance, vehicle acceleration performance, and on road fuel economy performance. The investigation is based on a validated mean value engine model of a six cylinder inline CI engine, and on a validated driveline and vehicle model of a heavy-duty truck.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Development of Compact Models for Mass Flows through Butterfly Throttle Valves

2018-04-03
2018-01-0876
Throttles and wastegates are devices used in modern engines for accurate control of the gas flows. It is beneficial, for the control implementation, to have compact and accurate models that describe the flow behavior. The compressible isentropic restriction is a frequently used model, it is simple and reasonable accurate but it has some issues. One special issue is that it predicts that the choking occurs at too high pressure ratios, for example the isentropic model predicts choking at a pressure ratio of 0.52, while experimental data can have choking at 0.4 or even lower. In this work, experimental data is acquired from throttles tested both in a flow bench and mounted as main throttle on a turbocharged gasoline engine. To analyze the flow behavior several flow characterizations are performed at different throttle openings.
Journal Article

Control-Oriented Compressor Model with Adiabatic Efficiency Extrapolation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1032
Downsizing and turbocharging with single or multiple stages has been one of the main solutions to decrease fuel consumption and harmful exhaust emissions, while keeping a sufficient power output. An accurate and reliable control-oriented compressor model can be very helpful during the development phase, as well as for engine calibration, control design, diagnostic purposes or observer design. A complete compressor model consisting of mass flow and efficiency models is developed and motivated. The proposed model is not only able to represent accurately the normal region measured in a compressor map but also it is capable to extrapolate to low compressor speeds. Moreover, the efficiency extrapolation is studied by analyzing the known problem with heat transfer from the hot turbine side, which introduces errors in the measurements done in standard gas stands.
Technical Paper

Turbo Speed Estimation Using Fixed-Point Iteration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0591
1 In modern turbocharged engines the power output is strongly connected to the turbocharger speed, through the flow characteristics of the turbocharger. Turbo speed is therefore an important state for the engine operation, but it is usually not measured or controlled directly. Still the control system must ensure that the turbo speed does not exceed its maximum allowed value to prevent damaging the turbocharger. Having access to a turbo speed signal, preferably by a cheap and reliable estimation instead of a sensor, could be beneficial for over speed protection and supervision of the turbocharger. This paper proposes a turbo speed observer that only utilizes the conditions around the compressor and a model for the compressor map. These conditions are either measured or can be more easily estimated from available sensors compared the conditions on the turbine side.
Technical Paper

Development and Usage of a Continuously Differentiable Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Model Equipped with VGT and EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0611
Today’s need for fuel efficient vehicles, together with increasing engine component complexity, makes optimal control a valuable tool in the process of finding the most fuel efficient control strategies. To efficiently calculate the solution to optimal control problems a gradient based optimization technique is desirable, making continuously differentiable models preferable. Many existing control-oriented Diesel engine models do not fully posses this property, often due to signal saturations or discrete conditions. This paper offers a continuously differentiable, mean value engine model, of a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with VGT and EGR, suitable for optimal control purposes. The model is developed from an existing, validated, engine model, but adapted to be continuously differentiable and therefore tailored for usage in an optimal control environment. The changes due to the conversion are quantified and presented.
Journal Article

Calculation of Optimal Heat Release Rates under Constrained Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0812
The work extends a methodology, for searching for optimal heat release profiles, by adding complex constraints on states. To find the optimum heat release profile a methodology, that uses available theory and methods, was developed that enables the use of state of the art optimal control software to find the optimum combustion trace for a model. The methodology is here extended to include constraints and the method is then applied to study how sensitive the solution is to different effects such as heat transfer, crevice flow, maximum rate of pressure rise, maximum pressure, knock and NO generation. The Gatowski single zone model is extended to a pseudo two zone model, to get an unburned zone that is used to describe the knocking and a burned zone for NO generation. A modification of the extended Zeldovich mechanism that makes it continuously differentiable, is used for NO generation.
Technical Paper

Compressor Flow Extrapolation and Library Design for the Modelica Vehicle Propulsion Library - VehProLib

2016-04-05
2016-01-1037
Modelbased systems engineering is becoming an important tool when meeting the challenges of developing the complex future vehicles that fulfill the customers and legislators ever increasing demands for reduced pollutants and fuel consumption. To be able to work systematically and efficiently it is desirable to have a library of components that can be adjusted and adapted to each new situation. Turbocharged engines are complex and the compressor model serves as an in-depth example of how a library can be designed, incorporating the basic physics and allowing fine tuning as more information becomes available. A major part of the paper is the summary and compilation of a set of rules of thumb for compressor map extrapolation. The considerations discussed are extrapolation to surge, extrapolation to restriction region, and extrapolation out to choking.
Technical Paper

Optimal Control of a Diesel-Electric Powertrain During an Up-Shift

2016-04-05
2016-01-1237
To investigate the optimal controls of a diesel-electric powertrain during a torque controlled gearshift, a powertrain model is developed. A validated diesel-electric model is used as the power source and the transmission dynamics are described by different sets of differential equations during torque phase, synchronization phase and inertia phase of the gearshift. Using the developed model, multi-phase optimal control problems are formulated and solved. The trade-off between gearshift duration and driveline oscillations are calculated and efficient gearshift transients for a diesel-electric and pure diesel powertrain are then compared and analyzed.
Journal Article

Computing Optimal Heat Release Rates in Combustion Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0882
The combustion process has a high impact on the engine efficiency, and in the search for efficient engines it is of interest to study the combustion. Optimization and optimal control theory is used to compute the most efficient combustion profiles for single zone model with heat transfer and crevice effects. A model is first developed and tuned to experimental data, the model is a modification of the well known Gatowski et al.-model [1]. This model is selected since it gives a very good description of the in-cylinder pressure, and thus the produced work, and achieves this with a low computational complexity. This enables an efficient search method that can maximize the work to be developed. First, smooth combustion profiles are studied where the combustion is modeled using the Vibe function, and parametric optimization is used to search for the optimal profile.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Dynamics Influence on Optimal Control of Diesel Engine Powered Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0290
The importance of including turbocharger dynamics in diesel engine models are studied, especially when optimization techniques are to be used to derive the optimal controls. This is done for two applications of diesel engines where in the first application, a diesel engine in wheel loader powertrain interacts with other subsystems to perform a loading operation and engine speed is dictated by the wheel speed, while in the second application, the engine operates in a diesel-electric powertrain as a separate system and the engine speed remains a free variable. In both applications, mean value engine models of different complexities are used while the rest of system components are modeled with the aim of control study. Optimal control problems are formulated, solved, and results are analyzed for various engine loading scenarios in the two applications with and without turbocharger dynamics.
Journal Article

Scalable Component-Based Modeling for Optimizing Engines with Supercharging, E-Boost and Turbocompound Concepts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0713
Downsizing and turbocharging is a proven technology for fuel consumption reduction in vehicles. To further improve the performance, electrified components in the turbocharger arrangements have been proposed, and investigations have shown acceleration improvements, emission reductions, and further fuel conversion efficiency benefits. Simulation tools play an important role in the design process as the interplay between component selection, control strategy, system properties and constraints is very complex. Evaluations are performed with respect to BSFC map, fuel consumption in a drive cycle, acceleration performance, as well as many other aspects. A component-based engine and vehicle model is developed and evaluated to facilitate the process of assessing and optimizing the performance of e.g. engine, charging system, and electrical machine components. Considerations of the execution time and model fidelity have resulted in a choice of models in the mean value engine model family.
Technical Paper

Future Engine Control Enabling Environment Friendly Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0697
The aim of this paper is to compile the state of the art of engine control and develop scenarios for improvements in a number of applications of engine control where the pace of technology change is at its most marked. The first application is control of downsized engines with enhancement of combustion using direct injection, variable valve actuation and turbo charging. The second application is electrification of the powertrain with its impact on engine control. Various architectures are explored such as micro, mild, full hybrid and range extenders. The third application is exhaust gas after-treatment, with a focus on the trade-off between engine and after-treatment control. The fourth application is implementation of powertrain control systems, hardware, software, methods, and tools. The paper summarizes several examples where the performance depends on the availability of control systems for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Engine Test Bench Turbo Mapping

2010-04-12
2010-01-1232
A method for determining turbocharger performance on installations in an engine test bench is developed and investigated. The focus is on the mapping of compressor performance but some attention is also given to the turbine mapping. An analysis of the limits that an engine installation imposes on the reachable points in the compressor map is performed, in particular it shows what corrected flows and pressure ratios can be reached and what these limitations depend on. To be able to span over a larger region of the corrected flow a throttle before the compressor is suggested and this is also verified in the test bench. Turbocharger mapping is a time consuming process and there is a need for a systematic process that can be executed automatically. An engine and test cell control structure that can be used to automate and monitor the measurements by controlling the system to the desired operating points is also proposed.
Technical Paper

Controller Tuning based on Transient Selection and Optimization for a Diesel Engine with EGR and VGT

2008-04-14
2008-01-0985
In modern Diesel engines Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Variable Geometry Turbochargers (VGT) have been introduced to meet the new emission requirements. A control structure that coordinates and handles emission limits and low fuel consumption has been developed. This controller has a set of PID controllers with parameters that need to be tuned. To be able to achieve good performance, an optimization based tuning method is developed and tested. In the optimization the control objectives are captured by a cost function. To aid the tuning a systematic method has been developed for selecting representative and significant transients that excite different modes in the controller. The performance is evaluated on the European Transient Cycle. It is demonstrated how weighting factors in the cost function influence control behavior, and that the proposed tuning method gives a significant improvement in control performance compared to standardized tuning methods for PID controllers.
Journal Article

Air Mass-Flow Measurement and Estimation in Diesel Engines Equipped with GR and VGT

2008-04-14
2008-01-0992
With stricter emission legislations and customer demands on low fuel consumption, good control strategies are necessary. This may involve control of variables that are hard, or even impossible, to measure with real physical sensors. By applying estimators or observers, these variables can be made available. The quality of a real sensor is determined by e.g. accuracy, drift and aging, but assessing the quality of an estimator is a more subtle task. An estimator is the result of a design work and hence, connected to factors like application, model, control error and robustness. The air mass-flow in a diesel engine is a very important quantity that has a direct impact on many control and diagnosis functions. The quality of the air mass-flow sensor in a diesel engine is analyzed with respect to day-to-day variations, aging, and differences in engine configurations. The investigation highlights the necessity of continuous monitoring and adaption of the air mass-flow.
Technical Paper

Methods for Cylinder Pressure Based Compression Ratio Estimation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0185
Three methods for compression ratio estimation based on cylinder pressure traces are developed and evaluated for both motored and fired cycles. Two methods rely upon models of polytropic compression and expansion for the cylinder pressure. It is shown that they give a good estimate of the compression ratio, although the estimates are biased. A method based on a variable projection algorithm with a logarithmic norm of the cylinder pressure, which uses interpolation of polytropic models of the expansion and compression asymptotes, is recommended when computational time is an important issue. For motored cycles it yields the smallest bias and confidence intervals for these two methods. For firing cycles a user-specified weighting factor is needed during the combustion phase, which pays off in a smaller estimation bias but also a higher variance. The third method includes heat transfer, crevice effects, and a commonly used heat release model for firing cycles.
Technical Paper

A Model for Fuel Optimal Control of a Spark-Ignited Variable Compression Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0399
Variable compression engines are a mean to meet the demand on lower fuel consumptions. A high compression ratio results in high engine efficiency, but also increases the knock tendency. On conventional engines with fixed compression ratio, knock is avoided by retarding the ignition angle. The variable compression engine offers an extra dimension in knock control, since both ignition angle and compression ratio can be adjusted. A vital question is thus what combination of compression ratio and ignition angle should be used to achieve maximum engine efficiency. Fuel optimal control of a variable compression engine is studied and it is shown that a crucial component is the model for the engine torque. A model for the produced work that captures the important effects of ignition and compression ratio is proposed and investigated. The main task for the model is to be a mean for determining the fuel optimal control signals, for each requested engine torque and speed.
Technical Paper

Control Oriented Modeling of the Gas Exchange Process in Variable Cam Timing Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0660
Variable cam timing engines pose new questions for engine control system designers. The cam timing directly influences cylinder air charge and residual mass fraction. Three models that predict residual mass fraction are investigated for a turbocharged dual independent Variable Cam Timing (VCT) engine. The three models (Fox et. al. 1993, Ponti et. al. 2002, and Mladek et. al. 2000) that all have real time capabilities are evaluated and validated against data from a crank angle based reference model. None of these models have previously been validated to cover this engine type. It is shown that all three models can be extended to dual independent VCT engines and that they also give a good description of the residual gas fraction. However, it is shown that the two most advanced models, based on a thermodynamic energy balance, are very sensitive to the model inputs and proper care must therefore be taken when these models are used.
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