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Journal Article

Technology Comparison for Spark Ignition Engines of New Generation

New gasoline engine design is highly influenced by CO2 and emission limits defined by legislations, the demand for real conditions fuel economy, higher torque, higher specific power and lower cost. To reach the requirements coming from the end-users and legislations, especially for SI engines, several technologies are available, such as downsizing, including turbocharging in combination with direct injection. These technologies allow to solve the main issues of gasoline engines in terms of efficiency and performance which are knocking, part-load losses, and thermal stress at high power conditions. Moreover, other possibilities are under evaluation to allow further steps of enhancement for the even more challenging requirements. However, the benefits and costs given by the mix of these technologies must be accurately evaluated by means of objective tools and procedures in order to choose among the best alternatives.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery in Automotive Engines

In the last years, the research effort of the automotive industry has been mainly focused on the reduction of CO2 and pollutants emissions. In this scenario, concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, Waste Heat Recovery technologies have been proposed. These latter include Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Electric Turbo-Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty applications but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for passenger cars. The paper deals with modeling of ORC power plant for simulation analyses aimed at evaluating the opportunities and challenges of its application for the waste heat recovery in a compact car, powered by a turbocharged SI engine.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Engine Thermal State by in-Cylinder Pressure Measurement in Automotive Diesel Engines

International regulations continuously restrict the standards for the exhaust emissions from automotive engines. In order to comply with these requirements, innovative control and diagnosis systems are needed. In this scenario the application of methodologies based on the in-cylinder pressure measurement finds widespread applications. Indeed, almost all engine thermodynamic variables useful for either control or diagnosis can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure. Apart for improving the control accuracy, the availability of the in-cylinder pressure signal might also allow reducing the number of existing sensors on-board, thus lowering the equipment costs and the engine wiring complexity. The paper focuses on the detection of the engine thermal state, which is fundamental to achieve suitable control of engine combustion and after-treatment devices.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Simulation Methodology of Thermal Management Systems for the CO2 Reduction after Engine Cold Start

The emissions limits of CO2 for vehicles are becoming more stringent with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is adopted to measure emissions for all new internal combustion engines in the European Union, and it is performed on cold vehicle, starting at a temperature of 22°C ± 2°C. Consequently, the cold-start efficiency of internal combustion engine is becoming of predominant interest. Since at cold start the lubricant oil viscosity is higher than at the target operating temperature, the consequently higher energy losses due to increased frictions can substantially affect the emission cycle results in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A suitable thermal management system, such as an exhaust-to-oil heat exchanger, could help to raise the oil temperature more quickly.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Optimization of Euro 6 Compliant Light Commercial Vehicles Equipped with SCR

The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system, installed on the exhaust line, is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for Euro 6 compliancy for light and medium duty trucks and bigger passenger cars. Moreover, new more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed for Euro 6c stage and they are scheduled to be applied by the end of 2017. In this context, the interest for SCR technology and its application on light-duty trucks is growing, with a special focus on its potential benefit in term of fuel consumption reduction, thanks to combustion optimization. Nevertheless, the need to warm up the exhaust gas line, to meet the required NOx conversion efficiency, remains an issue for such kind of applications.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Powertrain Model to Evaluate the Benefits of Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) in Reducing CO2 Emissions from Small Diesel Passenger Cars

In the last years the automotive industry has been involved in the development and implementation of CO2 reducing concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, waste heat recovery technologies. These latter include ThermoElectric Generator (TEG), Rankine cycle and Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty application but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for the automotive industry. The paper deals with the analysis of opportunities and challenges of the Electric Turbo Compound for automotive light-duty engines. In the ETC concept the turbine-compressor shaft is connected to an electric machine, which can work either as generator or motor. In the former case the power can satisfy the vehicle electrical demand to drive the auxiliaries or stored in the batteries.
Journal Article

Modeling Analysis of Waste Heat Recovery via Thermo Electric Generators for Fuel Economy Improvement and CO2 Reduction in Small Diesel Engines

This paper deals with modeling and analysis of the integration of ThermoElectric generators (TEG) into a conventional vehicle, specifically aimed at recovering waste heat from exhaust gases. The model is based on existing and commercial thermoelectric materials, specifically Bi2Te3, having ZTs not exceeding 1 and efficiency below 5%, but a trade-off between cost and performance that would be acceptable for automotive applications. TEGs operate on the principle of thermoelectric energy conversion via Seebeck effect, utilizing thermal gradients to generate electric current, with exhaust gases at the hot side and coolant at the cold side. In the simulated configuration the TEG converters are interfaced with the battery/alternator supporting the operation of the vehicle, reducing the energy consumption due to electrical accessories and HVAC.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Technical Paper

Electric Low Pressure Fuel Pump Control for Fuel Saving

The trend of CO2 emission limits and the fuel saving due to the oil price increase are important drivers for engines development. The involved technologies have the aim to improve the global engine efficiency, improving combustion and minimizing energy losses. The engine auxiliary devices electrification (i.e. cooling pump or lubricating pump) is a way to reduce not useful energy consumption, because it becomes possible to control them depending on engine operating point. This kind of management can be applied to the electric low pressure fuel pump. Usually the fuel delivery is performed at the maximum flow rate and a pressure regulator discharges the exceeding fuel amount inside the rail (i.e. gasoline engine) or upstream of the high pressure pump (i.e. common rail diesel engine). At part load, especially in diesel application, the electric fuel pump flow is higher than needed for engine power generation.