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Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Unburned Hydrocarbon Model for Diesel Engines

2020-09-15
2020-01-2006
Intensified emission regulations as well as consumption demands lead to an increasing significance of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions for diesel engines. On the one hand, the quantity of hydrocarbon (HC) raw emissions is important for emission predictions as well as for the exhaust after treatment. On the other hand, HC emissions are also important for predicting combustion efficiency and thus fuel consumption, since a part of unreleased chemical energy of the fuel is still bound in the HC molecules. Due to these reasons, a simulation model for predicting HC raw emissions was developed for diesel engines based on a phenomenological two-zone model. The HC model takes three main sources of HC emissions of diesel engines into account: Firstly, it contains a sub-model that describes the fuel dribble out of the injector after the end of injection. Secondly, HC emissions from cold peripheral zones near cylinder walls are determined in another sub-model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of H2 Formation Characterization and its Contribution to Post- Oxidation Phenomenon in a Turbocharged DISI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2188
In this research, simulation and experimental investigation of H2 emission formation and its influence during the post-oxidation phenomenon were conducted on a turbo-charged spark ignition engine. During the post-oxidation phenomenon phase, rich air-fuel ratio (A/F) is used inside the cylinder. This rich excursion gives rise to the production of H2 emission by various reactions inside the cylinder. It is expected that the generation of this H2 emission can play a key role in the actuation of the post-oxidation and its reaction rate if enough temperature and mixing strength are attained. It is predicted that when rich combustion inside the cylinder will take place, more carbon monoxide (CO)/ Total Hydro Carbon (THC)/ Hydrogen (H2) contents will arrive in the exhaust manifold. This H2 content facilitates in the production of OH radical which contributes to the post-oxidation reaction and in-turn can aid towards increasing the enthalpy.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Spray-Atomization of Various Fuels for an Outwardly Opening Piezo Injector for the Application to a Pilot Injection Passenger Car Gas Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2117
Pilot injection gas engines are commonly used as large stationary engines. Often, the combustion is implemented as a dual-fuel strategy, which allows both mixed and diesel-only operation, based on a diesel engine architecture. The current research project focuses on the application of pilot injection in an engine based on gasoline components of the passenger car segment, which are more cost-effective than diesel components. The investigated strategy does not aim for a diesel-only combustion, hence only small liquid quantities are used for the main purpose of providing a strong, reliable ignition source for the natural gas charge. This approach is mainly driven to provide a reliable alternative to the high spark ignition energies required for high cylinder charge densities. When using such small liquid quantities, a standard common-rail diesel nozzle will apparently not be ideal regarding some general specifications.
Technical Paper

The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines Combining Water Injection, Turbulence Increase and Miller Strategy

2020-06-30
2020-37-0010
The increase in efficiency is the focus of current engine development by adopting different technologies. One limiting factor for the rise of SI-engine efficiency is the onset of knock, which can be mitigated by improving the combustion process. HCCI/SACI represent sophisticated combustion techniques that investigate the employment of pre-chamber with lean combustion, but the effective use of them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the need of fast load control are still limiting their adoption for series engine. For these reasons, the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still largely investigated. Among these, water injection, in combination with the Miller cycle, offers the possibility to increase the knock resistance, which in turn enables the rise of the engine geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

2020-04-14
2020-01-0342
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

2020-04-14
2020-01-1157
Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation. The reason for that is the desire to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injection’s reproducibility. For this purpose, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena.
Technical Paper

Discretization and Heat Transfer Calculation of Engine Water Jackets in 1D-Simulation

2020-04-14
2020-01-1349
The industry is working intensively on the precision of thermal management. By using complex thermal management strategies, it is possible to make engine heat distribution more accurate and dynamic, thereby increasing efficiency. Significant efforts are made to improve the cooling efficiency of the engine water jacket by using 3D CFD. As well, 1D simulation plays a significant role in the design and analysis of the cooling system, especially for considering transient behaviour of the engine. In this work, a practice-oriented universal method for creating a 1D water jacket model is presented. The focus is on the discretization strategy of 3D geometry and the calculation of heat transfer using Nusselt correlations. The basis and reference are 3D CFD simulations of the water jacket. Guidelines for the water jacket discretization are proposed. The heat transfer calculation in the 1D-templates is based on Nusselt-correlations (Nu = Nu(Re, Pr)), which are derived from 3D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Homogenization Model Considering Direct Fuel Injection and EGR for SI Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0576
As a consequence of reduced fuel consumption, direct injection gasoline engines have already prevailed against port fuel injection. However, in-cylinder fuel homogenization strongly depends on charge motion and injection strategies and can be challenging due to the reduced available time for mixture formation. An insufficient homogenization has generally a negative impact on the combustion and therefore also on efficiency and emissions. In order to reach the targets of the intensified CO2 emission reduction, further increase in efficiency of SI engines is essential. In this connection, 0D/1D simulation is a fundamental tool due to its application area in an early stage of development and its relatively low computational costs. Certainly, inhomogeneities are still not considered in quasi dimensional combustion models because the prediction of mixture formation is not included in the state of the art 0D/1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Influence of Charge Air Temperature Reduction on Engine Efficiency, CCV and NOx-Emissions of a Large Gas Engine Using a SI Burn Rate Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0575
In order to meet increasingly stringent exhaust emission regulations, new engine concepts need to be developed. Lean combustion systems for stationary running large gas engines can reduce raw NOx-emissions to a very low level and enable the compliance with the exhaust emission standards without using a cost-intensive SCR-aftertreatment system. Experimental investigations in the past have already confirmed that a strong reduction of the charge air temperature even below ambient conditions by using an absorption chiller can significantly reduce NOx emissions. However, test bench operation of large gas engines is costly and time-consuming. To increase the efficiency of the engine development process, the possibility to use 0D/1D engine simulation prior to test bench studies of new concepts is investigated using the example of low temperature charge air cooling. In this context, a reliable prediction of engine efficiency and NOx-emissions is important.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional SI Burn Rate Model for Predicting the Effects of Changing Fuel, Air-Fuel-Ratio, EGR and Water Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0574
As a result of the R&D focus being shifted from internal combustion engines to electrified powertrains, resources for the development of internal combustion engines are restricted more and more. With that, the importance of highly efficient engine development tools is increased. In this context, 0D/1D engine simulation offers the advantage of low computational effort and fast engine model set-up. To ensure a high predictive ability of the engine simulation, a reliable burn rate model is needed. Considering the increasing interest in alternative fuels, the aspect of predicting the fuel influence on combustion is of special importance. To reach these targets, the change of engine combustion characteristics with changing fuels and changing air-fuel-ratios were investigated systematically in a first step. For this purpose, engine test bed data were compared with expected fuel-dependent flame wrinkling trends based on Markstein/Lewis number theory.
Technical Paper

The Application of E-Fuel Oxymethylene Ether OME1 in a Virtual Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Ultra-Low Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0349
For long haul transport, diesel engine due to its low fuel consumption and low operating costs will remain dominant over a long term. In order to achieve CO2 neutrality, the use of electricity-based, synthetic fuels (e-fuels) provides a solution. Especially the group of oxymethylene ethers (OME) is given much attention because of its soot-free combustion. However, the new fuel properties and the changed combustion characteristics place new demands on engine design. Meanwhile, the use of new fuels also creates new degrees of freedom to operate diesel engines. In this work, the application of dimethoxymethane (OME1) is investigated by means of 1D simulation at three operating points in a truck diesel engine. The subsystems of fuel injection, air path and exhaust gas are sequentially adjusted for the purpose of low emissions, especially for low nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Technical Paper

The Isochoric Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0796
For the gasoline engine, the isochoric process is the ideal limit of the ideal processes. During the project, a combustion engine with real isochoric boundary conditions is built. A “resting time” of the piston for several degrees crank angle in the top dead center (TDC) can be realized with a special crank drive. This crank drive consists of two crankshafts with different strokes, which are combined. The two crankshafts rotate with a ratio of two to one in opposite directions. The total stroke corresponds to the amount of the first crankshaft, so it is possible to investigate different strokes of the second crankshaft in the same crankcase. Different “resting times” can be achieved by different strokes of the second crankshaft. A specific combination of both crankshafts make a stroke possible which corresponds to that of a conventional combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Water Injection Strategies to Exploit the Thermodynamic Effects of Water in Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Test Bench

2019-09-09
2019-24-0102
CO2 emission constraints taking effect from 2020 lead to further investigations of technologies to lower knock sensitivity of gasoline engines, main limiting factor to increase engine efficiency and thus reduce fuel consumption. Moreover the RDE cycle demands for higher power operation, where fuel enrichment is needed for component protection. To achieve high efficiency, the engine should be run at stoichiometric conditions in order to have better emission control and reduce fuel consumption. Among others, water injection is a promising technology to improve engine combustion efficiency, by mainly reducing knock sensitivity and to keep high conversion rates of the TWC over the whole engine map. The comprehension of multiple thermodynamic effects of water injection through 3D-CFD simulations and their exploitation to enhance the engine combustion efficiency is the main purpose of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Validity of a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0054
Due to its high benefit-cost ratio, decreasing mechanical friction losses in internal combustion engines represents one of the most effective and widely applicable solutions for improved engine efficiency. Especially the piston group - consisting of piston, rings and pin - shows significant potential for friction reduction, which can be evaluated through extensive experimental parameter studies. For each investigated variant, the steady-state friction measurements are fitted to an empirical polynomial model. In order to calculate the associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in transient driving cycles, the steady-state friction model is used in a map-based vehicle simulation. If transient engine operation entails friction phenomena that are not included in the steady-state model, the simulation could yield erroneous fuel consumption and CO2 predictions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0090
The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Piston Influence and Flow Pulsation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0003
Engine valve flow coefficients are used to describe the flow throughput performance of engine valve/port designs, and to model gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Valve flow coefficients are normally determined at a stationary flow test bench, separately for intake and exhaust side, in the absence of the piston. However, engine operation differs from this setup; i. a. the piston might interact with valve flow around scavenging top dead center, and instead of steady boundary conditions, valve flow is nearly always subjected to pressure pulsations, due to pressure wave reflections within the gas exchange ports. In this work the influences of piston position and flow pulsation on valve flow coefficients are investigated for different SI engine geometries by means of 3D CFD and measurements at an enhanced flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

2019-09-09
2019-24-0177
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and thus emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower part loads for most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures are far below the maximum temperature allowed and dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimizing the combustion engine’s thermal management of the oil circuit. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings could be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig, it was shown that no excessive wear of the bearings is to be expected in case of load increase and simultaneous supply of cooler oil.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Injection Strategies on DISI Engine Particle Emissions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0101
Increasing the efficiency of modern gasoline engines (with direct injection and spark-ignition - DISI) requires innovative approaches. The reduction of the engine displacement, accompanied by an increase of the mean pressure, is limited by the tendency of increasing combustion anomalies. Conventional methods for knock mitigation, on the contrary, have a negative effect on consumption and efficiency. A promising technology to solve these conflicting objectives is the injection of water. Both the indirect and the direct water injection achieve a significant reduction in the load temperature. The fuel enrichment can be reduced, whereby the operating range of the exhaust aftertreatment can be extended. In addition, water injection paves the way for an increase in the geometric compression ratio, which leads to an efficiency advantage even at partial load.
Technical Paper

How to Model Real-World Driving Behavior? Probability-Based Driver Model for Energy Analyses

2019-04-02
2019-01-0511
A wide variety of applications such as driver assistant and energy management systems are researched and developed in virtual test environments. The safe testing of the applications in early stages is based on parameterizable and reproducible simulations of different driving scenarios. One possibility is modeling the microscopic driving behavior to simulate the longitudinal vehicle dynamics of individual vehicles. The currently used driver models are characterized by a conflict regarding comprehensibility, accuracy and calibration effort. Due to the importance for further analyses this conflict of interests is addressed by the presentation of a new microscopic driver model in this paper. The proposed driver model stores measured driving behaviors with its statistical distributions in maps. Thereby, the driving task is divided into free flow, braking in front of stops and following vehicles ahead. This makes it possible to display the driving behavior in its entirety.
Technical Paper

Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

2019-02-18
2019-01-5013
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation.
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