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Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Injection Strategies on DISI Engine Particle Emissions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0101
Increasing the efficiency of modern gasoline engines (with direct injection and spark-ignition - DISI) requires innovative approaches. The reduction of the engine displacement, accompanied by an increase of the mean pressure, is limited by the tendency of increasing combustion anomalies. Conventional methods for knock mitigation, on the contrary, have a negative effect on consumption and efficiency. A promising technology to solve these conflicting objectives is the injection of water. Both the indirect and the direct water injection achieve a significant reduction in the load temperature. The fuel enrichment can be reduced, whereby the operating range of the exhaust aftertreatment can be extended. In addition, water injection paves the way for an increase in the geometric compression ratio, which leads to an efficiency advantage even at partial load.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0090
The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Water Injection Strategies to Exploit the Thermodynamic Effects of Water in Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Test Bench

2019-09-09
2019-24-0102
CO2 emission constraints taking effect from 2020 lead to further investigations of technologies to lower knock sensitivity of gasoline engines, main limiting factor to increase engine efficiency and thus reduce fuel consumption. Moreover the RDE cycle demands for higher power operation, where fuel enrichment is needed for component protection. To achieve high efficiency, the engine should be run at stoichiometric conditions in order to have better emission control and reduce fuel consumption. Among others, water injection is a promising technology to improve engine combustion efficiency, by mainly reducing knock sensitivity and to keep high conversion rates of the TWC over the whole engine map. The comprehension of multiple thermodynamic effects of water injection through 3D-CFD simulations and their exploitation to enhance the engine combustion efficiency is the main purpose of the analysis.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of Optimal Integration of a Rankine Cycle Based Waste Heat Recovery System into the Cooling System of a Long-Haul Heavy Duty Truck

2018-09-10
2018-01-1779
As a promising solution to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from automobile industry in recent years. The most attractive concept of ORC-based WHR system is the conversion of the thermal energy of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust gas from Tailpipe (EGT) to kinetic energy which is provided to the engine crankshaft. Due to a shift of the operating point of the engine by applying WHR system, the efficiency of the overall system increases and the fuel consumption reduces respectively. However, the integration of WHR system in truck is challenging by using engine cooling system as heat sink for Rankine cycle. The coolant mass flow rate influences strongly on the exhaust gas bypass which ensures a defined subcooling after condenser to avoid cavitation of pump.
Technical Paper

Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1749
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine-Related Restrictions for the Global Efficiency by Using a Rankine Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery System on Heavy Duty Truck by Means of 1D-Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1451
As a promising concept to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from industry in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be, however, restricted by the engine. On one hand, engine operating conditions have direct impact on the temperature and the mass flow of exhaust gas, which is the waste heat source, on the other hand, the engine cooling system limits the heat rejection from the condenser of the WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the effects of the WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Knock Model for the Development of Future SI Engine Concepts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0855
At specific operating conditions, the auto-ignition in the unburnt mixture that precedes the occurrence of knock in conventional SI engines happens in two stages. In a previous publication, the authors demonstrated that the low-temperature heat release significantly influences the auto-ignition behavior of the mixture, thus severely impairing the prediction capabilities of the Livengood-Wu integral that the majority of the commonly used 0D/1D knock models are based on. Consequently, a new two-stage auto-ignition prediction approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions was introduced. It was demonstrated that the proposed auto-ignition model predicts the occurrence of two-stage ignition and accurately considers the significant influence of low-temperature heat release on the mixture’s auto-ignition behavior at various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Simulative Study for Post Oxidation During Scavenging on Turbo Charged SI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0853
Fulfilling exhaust emissions regulations and meet customer performance needs mainly drive the current engine development. Turbocharging system plays a key role for that. Currently turbocharging should provide highest engine power density at high engine speed by also allowing a very responsive performance at low end. This represents a trade-off in turbocharger development. A large scaled turbine allows having moderate exhaust gas back pressure for peak power region, but leading to loss of torque in low engine speed. In the last years of engine development scavenging helped to get away a bit from this trade-off as it increases the turbine mass flow and also reduces cylinder internal residual gas at low engine speed. The mostly in-use lean strategy runs air fuel ratios of closed to stoichiometric mixture in cylinder and global (pre catalyst) of λ = 1.05 to l = 1.3. This will be out of the narrow air fuel ratio band of λ = 1 to ensure NOx conversion in the 3-way-catalyst.
Technical Paper

Reaction Kinetics Calculations and Modeling of the Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0857
In the quasi-dimensional modeling of the spark-ignition combustion process, the burn rate calculation depends, among other influences, on the laminar flame speed. Commonly used models of laminar flame speeds are usually developed on the basis of measurement data limited to boundary conditions outside of the engine operation range. This limitation is caused by flame instabilities and forces flame speed models to be extrapolated for the application in combustion process simulation. However, for the investigation of, for example, lean burn engine concepts, reliable flame speed values are needed to improve the quality and predictive ability of burn rate models. For this purpose, a reference fuel for gasoline is defined to perform reaction kinetics calculations of laminar flame speeds for a wide range of boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Autoignition, Knock and Combustion for Methane-Based Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2186
Engine Knock is a stochastic phenomenon that occurs during the regular combustion of spark ignition (SI) engines and limits its efficiency. Knock is triggered by an autoignition of local “hot spots” in the unburned zone, ahead of the flame front. Regarding chemical kinetics, the temperature and pressure history as well as the knock resistance of the fuel are the main driver for the autoignition process. In this paper, a new knock modeling approach for natural gas blends is presented. It is based on a kinetic fit for the ignition delay times that has been derived from chemical kinetics simulations. The knock model is coupled with an enhanced burn rate model that was modified for Methane-based fuels. The two newly developed models are incorporated in a predictive 0D/1D simulation tool that provides a cost-effective method for the development of natural gas powered SI engines.
Journal Article

Two-Stage Ignition Occurrence in the End Gas and Modeling Its Influence on Engine Knock

2017-09-04
2017-24-0001
The most significant operation limit prohibiting the further reduction of the CO2 emissions of gasoline engines is the occurrence of knock. Thus, being able to predict the incidence of this phenomenon is of vital importance for the engine process simulation - a tool widely used in the engine development. Common knock models in the 0D/1D simulation are based on the calculation of a pre-reaction state of the unburnt mixture (also called knock integral), which is a simplified approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions in the end gas where knock occurs. Simulations of thousands of knocking single working cycles with a model representing the Entrainment model’s unburnt zone were performed using a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The investigations showed that, at specific boundary conditions, the auto-ignition of the unburnt mixture resulting in knock happens in two stages.
Technical Paper

Resonance Charging Applied to a Turbo Charged Gasoline Engine for Transient Behavior Enhancement at Low Engine Speed

2017-09-04
2017-24-0146
Upcoming regulations and new technologies are challenging the internal combustion engine and increasing the pressure on car manufacturers to further reduce powertrain emissions. Indeed, RDE pushes engineering to keep low emissions not only at the bottom left of the engine map, but in the complete range of load and engine speeds. This means for gasoline engines that the strategy used to increase the low end torque and power by moving out of lambda one conditions is no longer sustainable. For instance scavenging, which helps to increase the enthalpy of the turbine at low engine speed cannot be applied and thus leads to a reduction in low-end torque. Similarly, enrichment to keep the exhaust temperature sustainable in the exhaust tract components cannot be applied any more. The proposed study aims to provide a solution to keep the low end torque while maintaining lambda at 1. The tuning of the air intake system helps to improve the volumetric efficiency using resonance charging effects.
Journal Article

Influence of Binary CNG Substitute Composition on the Prediction of Burn Rate, Engine Knock and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0518
Since 0D/1D-simulations of natural gas spark ignition engines use model theories similar to gasoline engines, the impact of changing fuel characteristics needs to be taken into consideration in order to obtain results of higher quality. For this goal, this paper proposes some approaches that consider the influence of binary fuel mixtures such as methane with up to 40 mol-% of ethane, propane, n-butane or hydrogen on laminar flame speed and knock behavior. To quantify these influences, reaction kinetics calculations are carried out in a wide range of the engine operation conditions. Obtained results are used to update and extend existing sub-models. The model quality is validated by comparing measured burn rates with simulation results. The benefit of the new sub-models are utilized by predicting the influence the fuel takes on engine operating limits in terms of knocking and lean misfire limits, the latter being determined by using a cycle-to-cycle variation model.
Technical Paper

Development Approach for the Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition in a Free-Piston Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0047
In this paper the development approach and the results of numerical and experimental investigations on homogeneous charge compression ignition in a free piston engine are presented. The Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) is a new type of internal combustion engine designed for the application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The highly integrated system consists of a two-stroke combustion unit, a linear generator, and a mass-variable gas spring. These three subsystems are arranged longitudinally in a double piston configuration. The system oscillates linearly between the combustion chamber and the gas spring, while electrical energy is extracted by the centrally arranged linear generator. The mass-variable gas spring is used as intermediate energy storage between the downstroke and upstroke. Due to this arrangement piston stroke and compression ratio are no longer determined by a mechanical system.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations within the Framework of a Real Working-Process Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1315
For a reliable and accurate simulation of SI engines reproduction of their operation limits (misfiring and knock limit) and in this context the knowledge of cyclic combustion variations and their influence on knock simulation are mandatory. For this purpose in this paper a real working-process simulation approach for the ability to predict cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) of gasoline engines is proposed. An extensive measurement data base of four different test engines applying various operation strategies was provided in order to gain a better understanding of the physical background of the cyclic variations. So the ccv initiated by dilution strategies (internal EGR, lean operation), the ccv at full load and at the knock limit could be investigated in detail. Finally, the model was validated on the basis of three further engines which were not part of the actual development process.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Technical Paper

A Way towards Remarkable Reduction of Co2-Emissions in Motorsports: The CNG-Engine

2011-06-09
2011-37-0006
Until a few years ago the discussion of reduction of CO₂ emissions was completely out of place in motorsports. Nowadays, also in this field, car manufacturers want to investigate different approaches towards a more responsible and sustainable concept. For this target an interesting and feasible solution is the use of methane as an alternative fuel. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race of the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by turbocharged CNG engines. The aim was to prove that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued in 2010; this time exclusively with CNG vehicles.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0373
Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Investigation on different Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injected Turbocharged CNG-Engine

2006-09-14
2006-01-3000
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. To demonstrate the potential of natural gas direct injection, especially in combination with supercharging, some experimental investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder engine unit with lateral injector position. For this purpose different injection valve nozzles, piston crown geometries as well as operating strategies were investigated. First experimental results show that it is also possible to better support the combustion process by providing a late injection of a part of the fuel, near ignition point, so that the additional induced turbulence can speed up the flame propagation 1 Mixture formation with gaseous fuels due to its low mass density is more critical than in gasoline engines, because even high injection velocities still produce very low fuel penetration.
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