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Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1023
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welds made with convex and concave tools in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated based on experiments and a kinked fatigue crack growth model. Lap-shear specimens with the welds were tested under both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Optical micrographs indicate that under both quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, the welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the tools were plunged in during the welding processes. Based on the observed failure mode, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives of the welds. In the kinked crack fatigue crack growth model, the stress intensity factor solutions for fatigue life estimations are based on the closed-form solutions for idealized spot welds in lap-shear specimens.
Journal Article

Corrosion Behavior of Mixed-Metal Joint of Magnesium to Mild Steel by Ultrasonic Spot Welding with and without Adhesives

2013-04-08
2013-01-1017
Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in broader applications of Mg in automotive body construction. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated successfully to join Mg to steel and to achieve strong joints. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8 mm thick galvanized mild steel, without and with adhesive, was conducted. Adhesive used was a one-component, heat-cured epoxy material, and was applied between overlapped sheets before USW. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) bath, a constant humidity environment, and a drying period. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased with the cycles of corrosion exposure. Good joint strengths were retained at the end of 30-cycle test.
Technical Paper

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of Galvanized Mild Steel to Magnesium AZ31B

2012-04-16
2012-01-0474
Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) is a promising joining method for magnesium to steel to overcome the difficulties of fusion welding for these two materials with significant differences in melting temperatures. In a previous paper, the results of ultrasonic spot welding of magnesium to steel, with sonotrode engaged Mg piece, was presented. In this study, same material combination (0.8-mm-thick galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm Mg AZ31B-H24) was used, but with sonotrode engaging steel piece. Various welding time, from 0.4 to 2.0 sec, were applied. Tensile lap-shear test, optical metallography, and scanning electron micrography were conducted for joint strength measurement and microstructural evaluation. The joint strength reached over 4.2 kN at 1.8 sec welding time. Mg-Zn eutectic was formed at the interface, indicating the interfacial temperature over 344°C. The study demonstrated USW to be a viable process for potential manufacturing of mixed-metal joints.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Behavior of Mixed-Metal Joint of Magnesium to Mild Steel by Ultrasonic Spot Welding

2012-04-16
2012-01-0472
Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in boarder applications of Mg in automotive body construction. However, due to the large difference of melting temperatures of Mg and steel, fusion welding between two metals is very challenging. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated to join Mg to steel without melting and to achieve strong joints. However, galvanic corrosion between Mg and steel is inevitable but not well quantified. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6-mm-thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8-mm-thick galvanized mild steel was conducted. No specific corrosion protection was applied in order to study the worst corrosion behavior. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the salt bath, air drying, then a constant humidity environment. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased linearly with the cycles.
Journal Article

Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0480
Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si₃N₄ ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2 kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint.
Journal Article

Failure Modes of Friction Stir Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Dissimilar Advanced High Strength Steels under Quasi-Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0479
Failure modes of friction stir spot welds in lap-shear specimens of dissimilar high strength dual phase steel (DP780GA) and hot stamped boron steel (HSBS) sheets are investigated under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions based on experimental observations. Optical micrographs of dissimilar DP780GA/HSBS friction stir spot welds made by a concave tool before and after failure are examined. The micrographs indicate that the failure modes of the welds under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are quite similar. The micrographs show that the DP780GA/HSBS welds mainly fail from cracks growing through the upper DP780GA sheets where the concave tool was plunged into during the welding process. Based on the observed failure modes, a kinked fatigue crack growth model is adopted to estimate fatigue lives.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Ultrasonic Spot Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Magnesium and Steel Sheets

2011-04-12
2011-01-0475
Fatigue behavior of dissimilar ultrasonic spot welds in lap-shear specimens of magnesium AZ31B-H24 and hot-dipped-galvanized mild steel sheets is investigated based on experimental observations, closed-form stress intensity factor solutions, and a fatigue life estimation model. Fatigue tests were conducted under different load ranges with two load ratios of 0.1 and 0.2. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the welds. The micrographs show that the welds mainly fail from kinked fatigue cracks growing through the magnesium sheets. The optical micrographs also indicate that failure mode changes from the partial nugget pullout mode under low-cycle loading conditions to the transverse crack growth mode under high-cycle loading conditions. The closed-form stress intensity factor solutions at the critical locations of the welds are used to explain the locations of fatigue crack initiation and growth.
Journal Article

Ultrasonic Spot Welding of AZ31B to Galvanized Mild Steel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0975
Ultrasonic spot welds were made between sheets of 0.8-mm-thick hot-dip-galvanized mild steel and 1.6-mm-thick AZ31B-H24. Lap-shear strengths of 3.0-4.2 kN were achieved with weld times of 0.3-1.2 s. Failure to achieve strong bonding of joints where the Zn coating was removed from the steel surface indicate that Zn is essential to the bonding mechanism. Microstructure characterization and microchemical analysis indicated temperatures at the AZ31-steel interfaces reached at least 344°C in less than 0.3 s. The elevated temperature conditions promoted annealing of the AZ31-H24 metal and chemical reactions between it and the Zn coating.
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