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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Combustion Kinetics of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Fueled with Primary Reference Fuel

2020-04-14
2020-01-0554
This work numerically investigates the detailed combustion kinetics in a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using three fuel injection strategies, including single-injection, double-injection, port fuel injection and direct injection (PFI+DI). A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) chemical kinetics mechanism was coupled with CONVERGE-SAGE CFD model to predict GCI combustion under various operating conditions. To provide insight into key reaction pathways, a post-process tool was used. The validated Converge CFD code with the PRF chemistry and the post-process tool was applied to investigate how the ignition occurs during the low-to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection and PFI+DI injection strategies.
Technical Paper

OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray under different wall temperatures

2019-12-19
2019-01-2184
OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set as 773 K, and the wall temperature (Tw) was set as 523 K, 673 K, 773 K, respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 60 MPa, 100 MPa, 160 MPa, and the ambient pressures (Pa) of 4 MPa were applied. The OH spatial distributions of wall-impinging spray were measured by the method of OH chemiluminescence imaging. Two-color pyrometry was applied to evaluate the spatial distributions of KL factor and flame temperature of wall-impinging spray. The results reveal that, OH chemiluminescence is observed in the region near the impingement point firstly. The regions of high OH chemiluminescence intensity and high KL factor appear in the location near the wall surface along the whole combustion process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Knock Intensity and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1137
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial LNG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The results showed that the CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in LNG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Diesel Fuel Spray under Different Wall Temperatures

2017-10-08
2017-01-2251
The flame structure and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set to 773 K. The wall temperatures (Tw) were set to 523 K, 673 K and 773 K respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 600 bar, 1000bar and 1600bar, two ambient pressures (Pa) of 2 MPa and 4 MPa were applied. The flame development process of wall-impinging spray was measured by high-speed photography, which was utilized to quantify the flame luminosity intensity, ignition delay and flame geometrical parameters. The results reveal that, as the wall temperature increases, the flame luminosity intensity increases and the ignition delay decreases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the RCCI Combustion Processes Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, n-Butanol and Diesel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0777
In the current, numerical study RCCI combustion and emission characteristics using various fuel strategies are investigated, including methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and gasoline as the low reactivity fuel, and diesel fuel as the high reactivity fuel. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-alcohol chemical kinetic mechanism was coupled with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict RCCI combustion under various operating conditions. The results show that a higher quantity of diesel was required to maintain the same combustion phasing with alcohol-diesel fuel blends, and the combustion durations and pressure rise rates of methanol-diesel (MD) and ethanol-diesel (ED) cases were much shorter and higher than those of gasoline-diesel (GD) and n-butanol-diesel (nBD) cases. The simulations also investigated the sensitivities of the direct injection strategies, intake temperature and premixed fuel ratio on RCCI combustion phasing control.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Physical and Chemical Properties on Combustion and Emissions on Both Metal and Optical Diesel Engines and on a Partially Premixed Burner

2015-09-01
2015-01-1918
Effects of fuel physical and chemical properties on combustion and emissions were investigated on both metal and optical diesel engines. The new generation oxygenated biofuels, n-butanol and DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran) were blended into diesel fuel with 20% volume fraction and termed as Butanol20 and DMF20 respectively. The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates were varied from zero to ∼60% covering both conventional and low temperature combustion. Meanwhile, the reference fuels such as n-heptane, cetane, and iso-cetane were also used to isolate the effects of different fuel properties on combustion and emissions. In addition, to clarify the effects of oxygenated structures on combustion and emissions, a fundamental partially premixed burner was also used. Results based on metal and optical diesel engines show that fuel cetane number is the dominated factor to affect the auto-ignition timing and subsequent combustion process.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

2015-04-14
2015-01-0850
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility on Combustion and Emissions over a Wide Range of EGR Rates in a Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2659
To investigate the effects of fuel volatility on combustion and emissions in a diesel engine, a high-volatility fuel of n-heptane was blended into diesel fuel with different volumetric fractions (0%, 40%, 70%, 100%). A wide range of EGR rates from 0% to 65% were investigated, which covered both the conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion. Experiments under two engine load conditions, ∼5.2 bar and ∼10.5 bar gross IMEP were performed at 1500 rpm. The injection timing was fixed at 8°CA BTDC for all test cases. Results show that even if the ignition delay and combustion duration are nearly the same for all tested fuels, the premixed combustion fractions are increased for higher volatility fuels due to the improvement on mixing process during the ignition delay period. The indicated specific fuel consumption is decreased as using high-volatility fuels. The effect of fuel volatility on soot emissions depends on engine loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of Biodiesel Surrogates Combustion in a CI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1130
This work concerns the oxidation of biodiesel surrogates in a CI engine. An experimental study has been carried out in a single-cylinder common-rail CI engine with soybean biodiesel and two biodiesel surrogates containing neat methyl decanoate and methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. Tests have been conducted with various intake oxygen concentrations ranging from 21% to approximately 9% at intake temperatures of 25°C and 50°C. The results showed that the ignition delay and smoke emissions of neat methyl decanoate were closer to that of soybean biodiesel as compared with methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of methyl decanoate has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. A KIVA code, coupled with the Chemkin chemistry solver, was used as the computational platforms. The effects of various intake oxygen concentrations on the in-cylinder emissions of OH and soot were discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Combustion CFD Models and Evaluation of the Effects of Model Constants

2012-04-16
2012-01-0134
This paper describes numerical simulations that compare the performance of two combustion CFD models against experimental data, and evaluates the effects of combustion and spray model constants on the predicted combustion and emissions under various operating conditions. The combustion models include a Characteristic Time Combustion (CTC) model and CHEMKIN with reduced chemistry models integrated in the KIVA-3Vr2 CFD code. The diesel spray process was modeled using an updated version of the KH-RT spray model that features a gas jet submodel to help reduce numerical grid dependencies, and the effects of both the spray and combustion model constants on combustion and emissions were evaluated. In addition, the performance of two soot models was compared, namely a two-step soot model, and a more detailed model that considers soot formation from PAH precursors.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2011-08-30
2011-01-1931
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

2011-04-12
2011-01-1190
A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Combustion Process of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-10-27
2003-01-3194
Studies on combustion process of Dimethyl Ether (DME) were carried out on a constant volume combustion bomb (CVCB) and a visualization engine, and the photograph of combustion of DME was taken by high speed digital CCD. The results show that the ignition delay of DME is shorter than that of diesel fuel. When the fuel delivery amounts of DME and diesel in volume are the same, the combustion duration of DME is shorter than that of diesel fuel, and the flame temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel. At the end of combustion, the second injection occurred. The results of high-speed photograph in visualization engine show that, as soon as DME leaves the nozzle, it evaporates rapidly, and under the effect of air swirl, the spray“core” is blown off. Compared to diesel, the penetration of DME is shorter, and the wall combustion of DME is apparently smaller.
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