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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Combustion Kinetics of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Fueled with Primary Reference Fuel

This work numerically investigates the detailed combustion kinetics in a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using three fuel injection strategies, including single-injection, double-injection, port fuel injection and direct injection (PFI+DI). A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) chemical kinetics mechanism was coupled with CONVERGE-SAGE CFD model to predict GCI combustion under various operating conditions. To provide insight into key reaction pathways, a post-process tool was used. The validated Converge CFD code with the PRF chemistry and the post-process tool was applied to investigate how the ignition occurs during the low-to high-temperature reaction transition and how it varies due to single- and double-injection and PFI+DI injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Natural Flame Luminosity and Emission Spectra of Diesel Spray Flame under Oxygen-Enriched Condition in an Optical Constant Volume Vessel

The application of oxygen-enriched or oxy-fuel combustion coupled with carbon capture and storage technology has zero carbon dioxide emission potential in the boiler and gas turbine of the power plant. However, the oxygen-enriched combustion with high oxygen level has few studies in internal combustion engines. The fundamental issues and challenges of high oxygen level are the great differences in the physical properties and chemical effects compared with the combustion in air condition. As a consequence, the diesel spray combustion characteristics at high oxygen level were investigated in an optical constant volume vessel. The oxygen volume fraction of tested gas was from 21% to 70%, buffered with argon. The high-speed color camera was used to record the natural flame luminosity.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the RCCI Combustion Processes Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, n-Butanol and Diesel

In the current, numerical study RCCI combustion and emission characteristics using various fuel strategies are investigated, including methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and gasoline as the low reactivity fuel, and diesel fuel as the high reactivity fuel. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-alcohol chemical kinetic mechanism was coupled with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict RCCI combustion under various operating conditions. The results show that a higher quantity of diesel was required to maintain the same combustion phasing with alcohol-diesel fuel blends, and the combustion durations and pressure rise rates of methanol-diesel (MD) and ethanol-diesel (ED) cases were much shorter and higher than those of gasoline-diesel (GD) and n-butanol-diesel (nBD) cases. The simulations also investigated the sensitivities of the direct injection strategies, intake temperature and premixed fuel ratio on RCCI combustion phasing control.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of Biodiesel Surrogates Combustion in a CI Engine

This work concerns the oxidation of biodiesel surrogates in a CI engine. An experimental study has been carried out in a single-cylinder common-rail CI engine with soybean biodiesel and two biodiesel surrogates containing neat methyl decanoate and methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. Tests have been conducted with various intake oxygen concentrations ranging from 21% to approximately 9% at intake temperatures of 25°C and 50°C. The results showed that the ignition delay and smoke emissions of neat methyl decanoate were closer to that of soybean biodiesel as compared with methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of methyl decanoate has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. A KIVA code, coupled with the Chemkin chemistry solver, was used as the computational platforms. The effects of various intake oxygen concentrations on the in-cylinder emissions of OH and soot were discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Combustion CFD Models and Evaluation of the Effects of Model Constants

This paper describes numerical simulations that compare the performance of two combustion CFD models against experimental data, and evaluates the effects of combustion and spray model constants on the predicted combustion and emissions under various operating conditions. The combustion models include a Characteristic Time Combustion (CTC) model and CHEMKIN with reduced chemistry models integrated in the KIVA-3Vr2 CFD code. The diesel spray process was modeled using an updated version of the KH-RT spray model that features a gas jet submodel to help reduce numerical grid dependencies, and the effects of both the spray and combustion model constants on combustion and emissions were evaluated. In addition, the performance of two soot models was compared, namely a two-step soot model, and a more detailed model that considers soot formation from PAH precursors.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.