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Technical Paper

Measurement of Sound Speed in DME in a Wide Range of Pressure and Temperature Including the Critical Point

2016-10-17
2016-01-2258
Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand its fuel properties. Sound speed is an important fuel property that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressures corresponding to those in fuel injection systems are lacking. The critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point, since the sound speed at critical point is extremely low. In this study, sound speed in DME in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1 MPa to 80 MPa, 298.15 K to 413.15 K, including the vicinity of the critical point, was measured. The sound speed in DME decreases as either the pressure falls or the temperature rises.
Journal Article

Ignition Characteristics of 2,5-Dimethylfuran Compared with Gasoline and Ethanol

2015-09-01
2015-01-1806
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and 2-methylfuran (MF) have attracted attention as new biofuels. To utilize furans as alternative fuels, fundamental studies on the combustion characteristics are required. In this study, the ignition delay times of DMF were measured using a rapid compression machine and compared with those of gasoline and ethanol. To investigate the effect of the addition of DMF to gasoline, the ignition delay times of DMF-gasoline surrogate fuel blends were also measured. The ignition delay times of DMF were longer than those of gasoline and shorter than those of ethanol. The simulation results using the DMF kinetic model were in reasonable agreement with those of the experiments.
Journal Article

High-Speed Observation and Modeling of Dimethyl Ether Spray Combustion at Engine-Like Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1927
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. However, DME spray combustion characteristics are not well understood. There is no spray model validated against spray experiments at high-temperature and high-pressure relevant to combustion chambers of engines. DME has a lower viscosity and lower volumetric modulus of elasticity. It is difficult to increase injection pressure. The injection pressure remains low at 60 MPa even in the latest DME engine. To improve engine performance and reduce emissions from DME engines, establishing the DME spray model applicable to numerical engine simulation is required. In this study, high-speed observation of DME sprays at injection pressures up to 120 MPa with a latest common rail DME injection system was conducted in a constant volume combustion vessel, under ambient temperature and pressure of 6 MPa-920 K.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Injection and Combustion with Dimethyl Ether

2015-04-14
2015-01-0932
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Formation in DME Combustion

2011-11-08
2011-32-0632
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an oxygenated fuel with the molecular formula CH₃OCH₃, economically produced from various energy sources, such as natural gas, coal and biomass. It has gained prominence as a substitute for diesel fuel in Japan and in other Asian countries, from the viewpoint of both energy diversification and environmental protection. The greatest advantage of DME is that it emits practically no particulate matter when used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, one of the drawbacks of DME CI engine is the increase carbon monoxide (CO) emission in high-load and high exhaust gas circulation (EGR) regime. In this study, we have investigated the CO formation characteristics of DME CI combustion based on chemical kinetics.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of High Pressure DME Spray

2010-04-12
2010-01-0880
DME has lower energy content per unit volume than that of light oil (typical petroleum based diesel fuel). Roughly 1.8 times the quantity of DME is required to obtain equivalent content of light oil. DME also exhibits higher compressibility and much lower viscosity than light oil, so high pressure injection is not easy. Currently, DME engines have utilized a larger injection volume by enlarging the nozzle diameter with a relatively low injection pressure up to 60MPa. In order to obtain higher performance in future DME engines, high pressure fuel injection is considered essential, however the high pressure DME spray characteristics have not yet been understood. In this research, DME spray characteristics of high injection pressure up to 140MPa were examined using a constant volume vessel under engine-like temperature/pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Properties and Engine Performance of Dimethyl Ether-Blended Biodiesel Fuels

2007-07-23
2007-01-2016
One way to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere is to use biodiesel fuel (BDF) [1]. BDF has the advantage of low smoke combustion, since its molecules contain oxygen. Meanwhile, BDF has the drawbacks of high viscosity and a high pour point that make it difficult to use at low temperatures. Dimethyl ether (DME) can be made from biomass, as well as from natural gas or coal; therefore, it is regarded as one of the biomass fuels. DME has low viscosity and a low boiling point, and smoke-free combustion can be obtained, since it has no carbon-carbon bond [2]. On the other hand, it has the disadvantage of low lubricity due to its low viscosity. When these fuels are blended together, the weaknesses of the fuels can be overcome. The objective of this research is to show that blending these two fuels is an effective way of bringing biomass-derived fuels into practical use.
Technical Paper

Ignition Mechanisms of HCCI Combustion Process Fueled With Methane/DME Composite Fuel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0182
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of methane was performed using dimethyl ether (DME) as an ignition improver. The ignition mechanisms of the methane/DME/air HCCI process were investigated on the basis of the chemical kinetics. The engine test was also conducted to verify the calculation results, and to determine the operation range. Analysis of the results showed that DME was an excellent ignition improver for methane, having two functions of temperature rise and OH radical supply. It was also shown that the operation range was extended to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.54 without knocking, by controlling DME quantity.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion in the DME Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0089
For better understanding of the combustion characteristics in a direct injection dimethyl ether (DME) engine, the chemiluminescences of a burner flame and in-cylinder flame were analyzed using the spectroscopic method. The emission intensities of chemiluminescences were measured by a photomultiplier after passing through a monochrome-spectrometer. For the burner flame, line spectra were found nearby the wave length of 310 nm, 430 nm and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2 radicals, respectively. For the in-cylinder flame, a strong continuous spectrum was found from 340 nm wave length to 550 nm. Line spectra were also detected nearby 310 nm, 395 nm and 430 nm, arising from OH, HCHO, and C2 radicals, respectively, partially overlapping with the continuous spectrum. Of these line spectra, 310 nm of OH radical did not overlapped with the continuous spectrum.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Analysis from In-Cylinder Combustion of a DME-Fueled DI Diesel Engine

2003-10-27
2003-01-3192
To date, the DME combustion mechanism has been investigated by in-cylinder gas sampling, numerical calculations and observation of combustion radicals. It has been possible to quantify the emission intensities of in-cylinder combustion using a monochromator, and to observe the emitting species as images by using band-pass filters. However, the complete band images were not observed since the broadband (thermal) intensity may be stronger than band spectra intensities. Emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame have been measured using a spectroscope and photomultiplier. Results were compared to other fuels, such as n-butane and methane, then, in this study, to better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities near CH bands of an actual DI diesel engine fueled with DME were measured, and band spectra emitted from the engine were defined. Near TDC, emission intensities did not vary with wavelength.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Study on the Influence of Formaldehyde on HCCI Combustion Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2003-05-19
2003-01-1826
Computational analysis on the mechanism and control method for DME fueled HCCI type combustion was carried out on the basis of the chemical kinetics. The calculation results were verified experimentally using a single cylinder test engine. Analysis of the results showed that DME oxidation is governed by production/consumption behavior of OH, because DME oxidation is initiated by dehydrogenation with OH radicals. It was also shown that the overall oxidation reaction could be controlled by adding substances which react competitively with OH in the dehydrogenation reactions of DME. Of the substances we tested, formaldehyde was most effective. It was confirmed by engine testing that by adding a small amount of formaldehyde to the DME/air mixture, the heat evolved in the low temperature reactions was reduced and the reaction appearance timing was retarded.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Analysis of Combustion Flame Fueled with Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2003-05-19
2003-01-1797
To better understand the combustion characteristics of DME, emission intensities of DME combustion radicals from a pre-mixed burner flame were measured by a spectroscope and photomultiplier, Results were compared to other fuels, such as methane and butane. Large peaks in the band spectra from pre-mixed and diffusion DME flames were found near 310 nm, 430 nm, and 515 nm, arising from OH, CH and C2, respectively. The DME emission intensities decreased with increasing the equivalence ratio in this study. Notably, the relative decrease in the C2 band spectra peak was greater than that of the OH band. Comparing the pre-mixed DME and butane flames, the butane band spectra peaks were similar in shape, but much stronger than those for DME. However, it was remarkable that CH and C2 band spectra peaks decreased only slightly with increase in equivalence ratio compared to the DME case.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0764
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of an LPG DI SI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-05-06
2002-01-1648
This work aimed to develop an LPG fueled direct injection SI engine, especially in order to improve the exhaust emission quality while maintaining high thermal efficiency comparable to a conventional engine. In-cylinder direct injection engines developed recently worldwide utilizes the stratified charge formation technique at low load, whereas at high load, a close-to-homogeneous charge is formed. Thus, compared to a conventional port injection engine, a significant improvement of fuel consumption and power can be achieved. To implement such a combustion strategy, the stratification of mixture charge is very important, and an understanding of its combustion process is also inevitably necessary. In this work, a numerical simulation was performed using a CFD code (KIVA-3), where the shape of a combustion chamber, swirl intensity, injection timing and duration, etc. were varied and their effects on the mixture formation and combustion process were investigated.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Observation of Droplets and Evaporated State of Liquid Butane and DME at Low Injection Pressure

2002-05-06
2002-01-1627
Alternative fuels such as butane and DME have different properties including high vapor pressure, low viscosity, and low surface tension, compared to other conventional fuels. These properties may lead to different atomization characteristics such as liquid core breakup, droplet size distribution, and evaporation process. To investigate these effects, a method based on shadowgraph technique to take spray images for droplets and surrounding gas was tested and evaluated. Experiments were performed at low injection pressure for early stage direct injection. It could be concluded from the results that the proposed method could be used to investigate the structure of evaporating spray, and the vapor layer around the spray core could be correlated to the turbulent mixing length for both of butane and DME sprays by observing vapor and spray core.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics for Various Ambient Pressure of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2002-05-06
2002-01-1711
Recently, dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting much attention as a clean alternative fuel, since the thermal efficiency of DME powered diesel engine is comparable to diesel fuel operation and soot free combustion can be achieved. In this experiment, the effect of ambient pressure on DME spray was investigated with observation of droplet size such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) by the shadowgraph and image processing method. The higher ambient pressure obstructs the growth of DME spray, therefore faster breakup was occurred, and liquid column was thicker with increasing the ambient pressure. Then engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME diesel engine were investigated with various compression ratios. The minimum compression ratio for the easy start and stable operation was obtained at compression ratio of about 12.
Technical Paper

Spray and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of a Biodiesel Engine Operating with the Blend of Plant Oil and DME

2002-03-04
2002-01-0864
As an effective method to solve the global warming and the energy crisis, the research has been carried out for the adaptability of plant oil as an alternative fuel for Diesel engine. But there are the problems of engine performance and exhaust emissions owing to the high viscosity and low volatility, when the plant oil is used as a fuel. In order to eliminate these problems, spray characteristics of the DME (Dimethyl ether) blended plant oil has been examined by using the image processing based on the shadowgraph methodology. Results show that the optimum mixing ratio of the blend is about 50:50 (by weight %). Thereafter, experiments have been conducted with a DI Diesel engine using the DME blended plant oil, and compared the exhaust emissions with Diesel, DME and transesterified fuel operation. From the results, it can be concluded that the combustion characteristics of DME blended plant oil are comparable to Diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of DME Blended Biodiesel Oil

2001-09-24
2001-01-3636
Spray characteristics of biodiesel oil was investigated as it can be applied to industrial combustion systems, including internal combustion engines. Shadowgraph methodology using Greenfield system was used to take some images of the spray and to measure droplet size. A high speed video camera was also used to take a picture of spray penetration and its angle. From the results, it shows that DME blended biodiesel oil has almost the same droplet size as conventional diesel oil, when the blended DME ratio is over 50% by weight. It is also shown that there exists optimum fuel injection pressure that has minimum droplet size when the ambient gas pressure is constant.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Process of a DI CI Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2001-09-24
2001-01-3504
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the next generation fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It has good self-ignitability and would not produce particulate, even at rich conditions. DME has proved to be able to apply to ordinary diesel engines with minimal modifications, but its combustion characteristics are not completely understood. In this study, the behavior of a DME spray and combustion process of a direct injection CI engine fueled with DME was investigated by combustion observation and in-cylinder gas sampling. To distinguish evaporated and non-evaporated zones of a spray, direct and schlieren imaging were carried out. The sampled gas from a DME spray was analyzed by gas chromatography, and the major intermediate product histories during ignition period were analyzed.
Technical Paper

KIVA Simulation for Mixture Formation Processes in an In-Cylinder Injected LPG SI Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2805
This is a preliminary work for the development of a stratified combustion engine using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) as an alternative fuel. The main objective of this research is to find out the optimizing engine parameters from the viewpoint of mixture formation with the aid of simulation, where the KIVA_ code was used. The combustion characteristics of LPG and gasoline are different because of their different physical properties. Therefore, the numerical simulation was performed for optimizing engine parameters by changing the piston and cylinder geometry, as well as injection conditions. Result showed that geometry of combustion chamber has a great influence on mixture stratification. Also, weaker swirl seems to be better for mixture formation in the vicinity of the spark plug.
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