Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Number Concentration and Size Distributions of Nanoparticle Emissions during Low Temperature Combustion using Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1588
Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions.
Technical Paper

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

2013-09-08
2013-24-0170
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0175
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Characterization of a Urea-SCR Transit Bus

2012-06-01
2011-01-2469
West Virginia University characterized the emissions and fuel economy performance of a 30-foot 2010 transit bus equipped with urea selective catalytic reduction (u-SCR) exhaust aftertreatment. The bus was exercised over speed-time driving schedules representative of both urban and on-highway activity using a chassis dynamometer while the exhaust was routed to a full-scale dilution tunnel with research grade emissions analyzers. The Paris speed-time driving schedule was used to represent slow urban transit bus activity while the Cruise driving schedule was used to represent on-highway activity. Vehicle weights representative of both one-half and empty passenger loading were evaluated. Fuel economy observed during testing with the urban driving schedule was significantly lower (55%) than testing performed with the on-highway driving schedule.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

2010-10-05
2010-01-1967
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1968
Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel (PD). Emissions differences between vehicles operated on biodiesel blends and on diesel have been published previously, but data do not cover the latest engine technologies. Prior studies have shown that biodiesel offers advantages in reducing particulate matter, with either no advantage or a slight disadvantage for oxides of nitrogen emissions. This paper describes a recent study on the emissions impact of two biodiesel blends B20A, made from 20% animal fat (tallow) biodiesel and 80% PD, and B20B, obtained from 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% PD. These blends used the same PD fuel for blending and were contrasted with the same PD fuel as a reference. The research was conducted on a 2007 medium heavy-duty diesel truck (MHDDT), with an engine equipped with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Emissions of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations to Meet 2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0909
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC).
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Journal Article

A Work-Based Window Method for Calculating In-Use Brake-Specific NOx Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1301
A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Operating in the South Coast Air Basin

2006-10-16
2006-01-3395
Heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions are known to affect air quality, but few studies have quantified the real-world contribution to the inventory. The objective of this study was to provide data that may enable ambient emissions investigators to m,odel the air quality more accurately. The 25 vehicles reported in this paper are from the first phase of a program to determine representative regulated emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks (HHDDT) operating in Southern California. Emissions data were gathered using a chassis dynamometer, full flow dilution tunnel, and research grade analyzers. The subject program employed two truck test weights and four new test modes (one was idle operation), in addition to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the AC50/80 cycle. The reason for such a broad test cycle scope was to determine thoroughly how HHDDT emissions are influenced by operating cycle to improve accuracy of models.
Technical Paper

Influences of Real-World Conditions on In-Use Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3393
The 1998 Consent Decrees between the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States Government require the engine manufacturer to perform in-use emissions testing to evaluate their engine designs and emissions when the vehicle is placed into service. This additional requirement will oblige the manufacturer to account for real-world conditions when designing engines and engine control algorithms and include driving conditions, ambient conditions, and fuel properties in addition to the engine certification test procedures. Engine operation and ambient conditions can be designed into the engine control algorithm. However, there will most likely be no on-board determination of fuel properties or composition in the near future. Therefore, the engine manufacturer will need to account for varying fuel properties when developing the engine control algorithm for when in-use testing is performed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Weight on Truck Behavior and Emissions, using On-Board Measurement

2005-10-24
2005-01-3788
On-board emissions measurement for heavy-duty vehicles has taken on greater significance because new standards now address in-use emissions levels in the USA. Emissions compliance must be shown in a “Not-to-exceed” (NTE) zone that excludes engine operation at low power. An over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor was instrumented with the West Virginia University Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS). The researchers determined how often the truck entered the NTE, and the emissions from the vehicle, as it was driven over different routes and at different test weights (20,740 lb, 34,640 lb, 61,520 lb, and 79,700 lb) The MEMS interfaced with the truck ECU, while also measuring exhaust flowrate, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust. The four test routes that were employed included varying terrain types in order to simulate a wide range of on-road driving conditions. One route (called the Bruceton route) included a sustained hill climb.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1618
When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of PM and NOx for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Across Multiple Drive Schedules

2004-10-25
2004-01-3022
When heavy-duty truck emissions are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), the values may depend strongly on the nature of the test cycle or schedule. Prior studies have compared emissions gained using different schedules and have proposed techniques for translating emissions factor rates between schedules. This paper reviews emissions data from the 5-mode CARB HHDDT Schedule, UDDS Schedule, and a steady-state cycle (AC5080), with reference to each other. NOX and PM emissions are the two components of emissions which are reviewed. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 30,000 lbs, 56,000 lbs, and 66,000 lbs. For each vehicle, average data from one mode or cycle have been compared with average data for a different mode or cycle.
Technical Paper

Creation and Evaluation of a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck Test Cycle

2003-10-27
2003-01-3284
The California Air Resources Board (ARB) developed a Medium Heavy-Duty Truck (MHDT) schedule by selecting and joining microtrips from real-world MHDT. The MHDT consisted of three modes; namely, a Lower Speed Transient, a Higher Speed Transient, and a Cruise mode. The maximum speeds of these modes were 28.9, 58.2 and 66.0 mph, respectively. Each mode represented statistically selected truck behavior patterns in California. The MHDT is intended to be applied to emissions characterization of trucks (14,001 to 33,000lb gross vehicle weight) exercised on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents the creation of the MHDT and an examination of repeatability of emissions data from MHDT driven through this schedule. Two trucks were procured to acquire data using the MHDT schedule. The first, a GMC truck with an 8.2-liter Isuzu engine and a standard transmission, was tested at laden weight (90% GVW, 17,550lb) and at unladen weight (50% GVW, 9,750lb).
Technical Paper

Measurement of Brake-specific NOX Emissions using Zirconia Sensors for In-use, On-board Heavy-duty Vehicle Applications

2002-05-06
2002-01-1755
Emissions tests for heavy -duty diesel-fueled engines and vehicles are normally performed using engine dynamometers and chassis dynamometers, respectively, with laboratory grade gaseous concentration measurement analyzers and supporting test equipment. However, a considerable effort has been recently expended on developing in-use, on-board tools to measure brake-specific emissions from heavy -duty vehicles with the highest degree of accuracy and precision. This alternative testing methodology would supplement the emissions data that is collected from engine and chassis dynamometer tests. The on-board emissions testing methodology entails actively recording emissions and vehicle operating parameters (engine speed and load, vehicle speed etc.) from vehicles while they are operating on the road. This paper focuses on in-use measurements of NOX with zirconium oxide sensors and other portable NOX detectors.
Technical Paper

Development and Initial Use of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Test Schedule for Emissions Characterization

2002-05-06
2002-01-1753
In characterizing the emissions from mobile sources, it is essential that the vehicle be exercised in a way that reasonably represents typical in-use behavior. A heavy-heavy duty diesel truck (HHDDT) test schedule was developed from speed-time data gathered during two Air Resources Board-sponsored truck activity programs. The data were divided into four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise Modes, in order of increasing speed. For the last three modes, speed-time schedules were created that represented all the data in that mode. Statistical parameters such as average speed, stops per unit distance, kinetic energy, maximum speed and acceleration and deceleration values were considered in arriving at these schedules. The schedules were evaluated using two Class 8 over-the-road tractors on a chassis dynamometer. Emissions were measured using a full-scale dilution tunnel, filtration for particulate matter (PM), and research grade analyzers for the gases.
X