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Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Bowl Geometry Impacts on Thermal Efficiency in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0228
In light- and medium-duty diesel engines, piston bowl shape influences thermal efficiency, either due to changes in wall heat loss or to changes in the heat release rate. The relative contributions of these two factors are not clearly described in the literature. In this work, two production piston bowls are adapted for use in a single cylinder research engine: a conventional, re-entrant piston, and a stepped-lip piston. An injection timing sweep is performed at constant load with each piston, and heat release analyses provide information about thermal efficiency, wall heat loss, and the degree of constant volume combustion. Zero-dimensional thermodynamic simulations provide further insight and support for the experimental results. The effect of bowl geometry on wall heat loss depends on injection timing, but changes in wall heat loss cannot explain changes in efficiency.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

Measured and Predicted Soot Particle Emissions from Natural Gas Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2518
Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
Journal Article

Applying Advanced CFD Analysis Tools to Study Differences between Start-of-Main and Start-of-Post Injection Flow, Temperature and Chemistry Fields Due to Combustion of Main-Injected Fuel

2015-09-06
2015-24-2436
This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of RCCI and HCCI Combustion Processes Using Gasoline, Diesel, iso-Butanol and DTBP Cetane Improver

2015-04-14
2015-01-0850
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be an attractive concept to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion. RCCI can be realized by applying two fuels with different reactivities, e.g., diesel and gasoline. This motivates the idea of using a single low reactivity fuel and direct injection (DI) of the same fuel blended with a small amount of cetane improver to achieve RCCI combustion. In the current study, numerical investigation was conducted to simulate RCCI and HCCI combustion and emissions with various fuels, including gasoline/diesel, iso-butanol/diesel and iso-butanol/iso-butanol+di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) cetane improver. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-iso-butanol-DTBP mechanism was formulated and coupled with the KIVA computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict the combustion and emissions of these fuels under different operating conditions in a heavy duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Isobutanol as Both Low Reactivity and High Reactivity Fuels with Addition of Di-Tert Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) in RCCI Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0839
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore the effects of isobutanol as both the high and low reactivity fuels in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion. Three fuel combinations were examined; EEE/diesel, isobutanol/diesel, and isobutanol/isobutanol+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide). In order to assess the relative performance of the fuel combinations of interest under RCCI operation, the engine was operated under conditions representative of typical low temperature combustion (LTC). A net load of 6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was chosen because it provides a wide operable range of equivalence ratios and combustion phasings without excessively high peak pressure rise rates (PPRR). The engine was operated under various intake pressures with global equivalence ratios from 0.28-0.36, and various combustion phasings (defined by 50% mass fraction burned-CA50) from about 1.5 to about 10 deg after top dead center (ATDC).
Journal Article

Direct Dual Fuel Stratification, a Path to Combine the Benefits of RCCI and PPC

2015-04-14
2015-01-0856
Control of the timing and magnitude of heat release is one of the biggest challenges for premixed compression ignition, especially when attempting to operate at high load. Single-fuel strategies such as partially premixed combustion (PPC) use direct injection of gasoline to stratify equivalence ratio and retard heat release, thereby reducing pressure rise rate and enabling high load operation. However, retarding the heat release also reduces the maximum work extraction, effectively creating a tradeoff between efficiency and noise. Dual-fuel strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) use premixed gasoline and direct injection of diesel to stratify both equivalence ratio and fuel reactivity, which allows for greater control over the timing and duration of heat release. This enables combustion phasing closer to top dead center (TDC), which is thermodynamically favorable.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional-Modeling-Based Development of a Novel 2-Zone Combustion Chamber Applied to Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0840
A novel 2-zone combustion chamber concept (patent pending) was developed using multi-dimensional modeling. At minimum volume, an axial projection in the piston divides the volume into distinct zones joined by a communication channel. The projection provides a means to control the mixture formation and combustion phasing within each zone. The novel combustion system was applied to reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Results from the study of an 8.8 bar BMEP, 2600 RPM operating condition are presented for the light-duty engine. The results from the heavy-duty engine are at an 18.1 bar BMEP, 1200 RPM operating condition. The effect of several major design features were investigated including the volume split between the inner and outer combustion chamber volumes, the clearance (squish) height, and the top ring land (crevice) volume.
Journal Article

Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0855
The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
Journal Article

Load Limit Extension in Pre-Mixed Compression Ignition Using a 2-Zone Combustion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0860
A novel 2-zone combustion system was examined at medium load operation consistent with loads in the light duty vehicle drive cycle (7.6 bar BMEP and 2600 rev/min). Pressure rise rate and noise can limit the part of the engine map where pre-mixed combustion strategies such as HCCI or RCCI can be used. The present 2-zone pistons have an axial projection that divides the near TDC volume into two regions (inner and outer) joined by a narrow communication channel defined by the squish height. Dividing the near TDC volume provides a means to prepare two fuel-air mixtures with different ignition characteristics. Depending on the fuel injection timing, the reactivity of the inner or outer volume can be raised to provide an ignition source for the fuel-air mixture in the other, less reactive volume. Multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to design the 2-zone piston geometry examined in this study.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1696
In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Use of Multiple Injection Strategies to Reduce Emission and Noise in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0831
The low temperature combustion concept is very attractive for reducing NOx and soot emissions in diesel engines. However, it has potential limitations due to higher combustion noise, CO and HC emissions. A multiple injection strategy is an effective way to reduce unburned emissions and noise in LTC. In this paper, the effect of multiple injection strategies was investigated to reduce combustion noise and unburned emissions in LTC conditions. A hybrid surrogate fuel model was developed and validated, and was used to improve LTC predictions. Triple injection strategies were considered to find the role of each pulse and then optimized. The split ratio of the 1st and 2nd pulses fuel was found to determine the ignition delay. Increasing mass of the 1st pulse reduced unburned emissions and an increase of the 3rd pulse fuel amount reduced noise. It is concluded that the pulse distribution can be used as a control factor for emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Highway Fuel Economy Testing of an RCCI Series Hybrid Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0837
In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel. Fuel economy and emissions data were recorded over the specified test cycle and calculated based on the fuel properties and the high-voltage battery energy usage.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0843
While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Soot Reduction Mechanisms of Post-Injection in Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0794
The application of close-coupled post injections in diesel engines has been proven to be an effective in-cylinder strategy for soot reduction, without much fuel efficiency penalty. But due to the complexity of in-cylinder combustion, the soot reduction mechanism of post-injections is difficult to explain. Accordingly, a simulation study using a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, coupled with the SpeedChem chemistry solver and a semi-detailed soot model, was carried out to investigate post-injection in a constant volume combustion chamber, which is more simple and controllable with respect to the boundary conditions than an engine. A 2-D axisymmetric mesh of radius 2 cm and height 5 cm was used to model the spray. Post-injection durations and initial oxygen concentrations were swept to study the efficacy of post-injection under different combustion conditions.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Close-Coupled Pilot Injections to Reduce Combustion Noise in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0796
A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Equivalence Ratio Effects on Particulate Formation in a Spark-Ignition Engine under Premixed Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1607
3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
Journal Article

A Surrogate Fuel Formulation Approach for Real Transportation Fuels with Application to Multi-Dimensional Engine Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1464
Real transportation fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, are mixtures of thousands of different hydrocarbons. For multidimensional engine applications, numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included exceeds present computational capabilities. Consequently, surrogate fuel models are normally utilized. A good surrogate fuel model should approximate the essential physical and chemical properties of the real fuel. In this work, we present a novel methodology for the formulation of surrogate fuel models based on local optimization and sensitivity analysis technologies. Within the proposed approach, several important fuel properties are considered. Under the physical properties, we focus on volatility, density, lower heating value (LHV), and viscosity, while the chemical properties relate to the chemical composition, hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio, and ignition behavior. An error tolerance is assigned to each property for convergence checking.
Journal Article

Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1325
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition.
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