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Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0761
A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0047
NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reduction of NOx in a Double Compression Expansion Engine by Injection of AAS 25 and AUS 32 in the Exhaust Gases

2019-01-15
2019-01-0045
The double compression expansion engine (DCEE) is a promising concept for high engine efficiency while fulfilling the most stringent European and US emission legislation. The complete thermodynamic cycle of the engine is split among several cylinders. Combustion of fuel occurs in the combustion cylinder and in the expansion cylinder the exhaust gases are over expanded to obtain high efficiency. A high-pressure tank is installed between these two cylinders for after-treatment purposes. One proposal is to utilize thermal reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the high-pressure tank as exhaust temperatures can be sufficiently high (above 700 °C) for the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reactions to occur. The exhaust gas residence time at these elevated exhaust temperatures is also long enough for the chemical reactions, as the volume of the high-pressure tank is substantially larger than the volume of the combustion cylinders.
Technical Paper

The Potential of SNCR Based NOx Reduction in a Double Compression Expansion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1128
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), used to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), has been a well-established technology in the power plant industry for several decades. The SNCR technique is an aftertreatment strategy based on thermal reduction of NOx at high temperatures. In the compression ignition engine application, the technology has not been applicable due to low exhaust temperatures, which makes the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system essential for efficient nitrogen oxide reduction to fulfill the environment legislation. For a general Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) the complete expansion cycle is split in two separate cycles, i.e. the engine is a split cycle engine. In the first cylinder the combustion occurs and in the second stage the combustion gas is introduced and further expanded in a low-pressure expansion cylinder. The combustion cylinder is connected with the expansion cylinder through a large insulated high-pressure tank.
Technical Paper

Humid Air Motor: A Novel Concept to Decrease the Emissions Using the Exhaust Heat

2017-10-08
2017-01-2369
Humid air motor (HAM) is an engine operated with humidified inlet charge. System simulations study on HAM showed the waste heat recovery potential over a conventional system. An HAM setup was constructed, to comprehend the potential benefits in real-time, the HAM setup was built around a 13-litre six cylinder Volvo diesel engine. The HAM engine process is explained in detail in this paper. Emission analysis is also performed for all three modes of operation. The experiments were carried out at part load operating point of the engine to understand the effects of humidified charge on combustion, efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were conducted without EGR, with EGR, and with humidified inlet charge. These three modes of operation provided the potential benefits of each system. Exhaust heat was used for partial humidification process. Results show that HAM operation, without compromising on efficiency, reduces NOx and soot significantly over the engine operated without EGR.
Technical Paper

Combined Low and High Pressure EGR for Higher Brake Efficiency with Partially Premixed Combustion

2017-10-08
2017-01-2267
The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engines has shown to yield high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on partially premixed combustion has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The partially premixed combustion concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR arrangement and heat exchangers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 volume % 95 RON service station gasoline and 20 volume % n-heptane.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Different Turbocharger Configurations for a Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0164
The engine concept partially premixed combustion (PPC) has proved higher gross indicated efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion engines. The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high gas exchange losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions. In the presented work experiments and modelling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single-stage turbocharger, however, with compressed air from the building being optionally supplied to the compressor.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Soot Emissions in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion with Pilot Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0511
In this paper, a control-oriented soot model was developed for real-time soot prediction and combustion condition optimization in a gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Engine. PPC is a promising combustion concept that achieves high efficiency, low soot and NOx emissions simultaneously. However, soot emissions were found to be significantly increased with high EGR and pilot injection, therefore a predictive soot model is needed for PPC engine control. The sensitivity of soot emissions to injection events and late-cycle heat release was investigated on a multi-cylinder heavy duty gasoline PPC engine, which indicated main impact factors during soot formation and oxidation processes. The Hiroyasu empirical model was modified according to the sensitivity results, which indicated main influences during soot formation and oxidation processes. By introducing additional compensation factors, this model can be used to predict soot emissions under pilot injection.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions of Gasoline in HCCI and PPC

2016-10-17
2016-01-2300
In order to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions; however, due to increased fuel stratifications, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC) at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
Technical Paper

A Droplet Size Investigation and Comparison Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling Injector for AdBlue Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2211
Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

NOx-Conversion and Activation Temperature of a SCR-Catalyst Whilst Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling AdBlue Injector on a LD Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2212
Yearly 3.3 million premature deaths occur worldwide due to air pollution and NOx pollution counts for nearly one seventh of those [1]. This makes exhaust after-treatment a very important research and has caused the permitted emission levels for NOx to decrease to very low levels, for EURO 6 only 0.4 g/kWh. Recently new legislation on ammonia slip with a limit of 10 ppm NH3 has been added [2], which makes the SCR-technology more challenging. This technology injects small droplets of an aqueous Urea solution into the stream of exhaust gases and through a catalytic reaction within the SCR-catalyst, NOx is converted into Nitrogen and Water. To enable the catalytic reaction the water content in the Urea solution needs to be evaporated and the ammonia molecules need to have sufficient time to mix with the gases prior to the catalyst.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine with Gasoline-Like Fuel towards a High Engine Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-0763
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept with high thermodynamic efficiency and low emission level, and also with minimal modification of standard engine hardware. To use PPC in a production oriented engine, the optimal intake charge conditions for PPC should be included in the analysis. The experiments in this paper investigated and confirmed that the optimal intake conditions of net indicated efficiency for PPC are EGR between 50% and 55% as possible and the lambda close to 1.4. Heat-transfer energy and exhaust gas waste-energy contribute to the majority of the energy loss in the engine. The low EGR region has high heat-transfer and low exhaust gas enthalpy-waste, while the high EGR region has low heat-transfer and high exhaust gas waste-enthalpy. The optimal EGR condition is around 50% where the smallest energy loss is found as a trade-off between heat transfer and exhaust-gas enthalpy-waste.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Chamber Volume and Nozzle Diameter on Pre-Chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0867
It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) for Control Purposes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0884
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines. In order to investigate the sensitivity of PPC to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, intake gas temperature, intake gas pressure, and injection timing, these parameters were swept individually at three different loads in a single cylinder diesel engine with gasoline-like fuel. A factor of sensitivity was defined to indicate the combustion's controllability and sensitivity to inlet gas parameters and injection timings. Through analysis of experimental results, a control window of inlet gas parameters and injection timings is obtained at different loads in PPC mode from 5 bar to 10 bar IMEPg load at 1200 rpm. To further study the PPC controllability with injection timing, main injection timing was adjusted to sustain steady combustion phasing subject to perturbation of inlet gas state.
Journal Article

An In-Cycle based NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Injection of AdBlue

2014-10-13
2014-01-2817
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
Technical Paper

Multi Cylinder Partially Premixed Combustion Performance Using Commercial Light-Duty Engine Hardware

2014-10-13
2014-01-2680
This work investigates the performance potential of an engine running with partially premixed combustion (PPC) using commercial diesel engine hardware. The engine was a 2.01 SAAB (GM) VGT turbocharged diesel engine and three different fuels were run - RON 70 gasoline, RON 95 Gasoline and MK1 diesel. With the standard hardware an operating range for PPC from idle at 1000 rpm up to a peak load of 1000 kPa IMEPnet at 3000 rpm while maintaining a peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) below 7 bar/CAD was possible with either RON 70 gasoline and MK1 diesel. Relaxing the PPRR requirements, a peak load of 1800 kPa was possible, limited by the standard boosting system. With RON 95 gasoline it was not possible to operate the engine below 400 kPa. Low pressure EGR routing was beneficial for efficiency and combined with a split injection strategy using the maximum possible injection pressure of 1450 bar a peak gross indicated efficiency of above 51% was recorded.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

2013-10-14
2013-01-2603
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Technical Paper

System Simulations to Evaluate the Potential Efficiency of Humid Air Motors

2013-10-14
2013-01-2646
In the quest for efficiency improvement in heavy duty truck engines, waste heat recovery could play a valuable role. The evaporative cycle is a waste heat recovery technology aimed at improving efficiency and decreasing emissions. A humid air motor (HAM) uses the waste heat from the exhaust of the engine to humidify the inlet air; this humid air, with higher specific heat, reduces NOx emission to a greater extent [1] [2]. Despite this benefit of emission reduction, the increase or decrease in efficiency of the humid air motor compared to the conventional engine is not discussed in the literature [3] [4] [5]. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the efficiency of the HAM using system model simulations of a 13-liter heavy duty Volvo engine with a humidifier. The commercial software GT-SUITE is used to build the system model and to perform the simulations. The efficiency improvement of the HAM comes from the expansion of the vapor mass flow produced as a result of humidification.
Journal Article

Comparison of Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and Rebreathing Valve Strategies on a Gasoline PPC Engine at Low Load and Idle Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0902
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. In a previous study it was shown that it is possible to use NVO to improve combustion stability and combustion efficiency at operating conditions where available boosted air is assumed to be limited. NVO has the disadvantage of low net indicated efficiency due to heat losses from recompressions of the hot residual gases. An alternative to NVO is the rebreathing valve strategy where the exhaust valves are reopened during the intake stroke. The net indicated efficiency is expected to be higher with the rebreathing strategy but the question is if similar improvements in combustion stability can be achieved with rebreathing as with NVO.
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