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Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Journal Article

NOx-Conversion Comparison of a SCR-Catalyst Using a Novel Biomimetic Effervescent Injector on a Heavy-Duty Engine

NOx pollution from diesel engines has been stated as causing over 10 000 pre-mature deaths annually and predictions are showing that this level will increase [1]. In order to decrease this growing global problem, exhaust after-treatment systems for diesel engines have to be improved, this is especially so for vehicles carrying freight as their use of diesel engines is expected to carry on into the future [2]. The most common way to reduce diesel engine NOx out emissions is to use SCR. SCR operates by injecting aqueous Urea solution, 32.5% by volume (AUS-32), that evaporates prior the catalytic surface of the SCR-catalyst. Due to a catalytic reaction within the catalyst, NOx is converted nominally into Nitrogen and Water. Currently, the evaporative process is enhanced by aggressive mixer plates and long flow paths.
Technical Paper

Combined Low and High Pressure EGR for Higher Brake Efficiency with Partially Premixed Combustion

The concept of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) in internal combustion engines has shown to yield high gross indicated efficiencies, but at the expense of gas exchange efficiencies. Most of the experimental research on partially premixed combustion has been conducted on compression ignition engines designed to operate on diesel fuel and relatively high exhaust temperatures. The partially premixed combustion concept on the other hand relies on dilution with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates to slow down the combustion which results in low exhaust temperatures, but also high mass flows over cylinder, valves, ports and manifolds. A careful design of the gas exchange system, EGR arrangement and heat exchangers is therefore of utter importance. Experiments were performed on a heavy-duty, compression ignition engine using a fuel consisting of 80 volume % 95 RON service station gasoline and 20 volume % n-heptane.
Technical Paper

Humid Air Motor: A Novel Concept to Decrease the Emissions Using the Exhaust Heat

Humid air motor (HAM) is an engine operated with humidified inlet charge. System simulations study on HAM showed the waste heat recovery potential over a conventional system. An HAM setup was constructed, to comprehend the potential benefits in real-time, the HAM setup was built around a 13-litre six cylinder Volvo diesel engine. The HAM engine process is explained in detail in this paper. Emission analysis is also performed for all three modes of operation. The experiments were carried out at part load operating point of the engine to understand the effects of humidified charge on combustion, efficiency, and emissions. Experiments were conducted without EGR, with EGR, and with humidified inlet charge. These three modes of operation provided the potential benefits of each system. Exhaust heat was used for partial humidification process. Results show that HAM operation, without compromising on efficiency, reduces NOx and soot significantly over the engine operated without EGR.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Different Turbocharger Configurations for a Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine

The engine concept partially premixed combustion (PPC) has proved higher gross indicated efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion engines. The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high gas exchange losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions. In the presented work experiments and modelling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single-stage turbocharger, however, with compressed air from the building being optionally supplied to the compressor.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of Soot Emissions in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion with Pilot Injection

In this paper, a control-oriented soot model was developed for real-time soot prediction and combustion condition optimization in a gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) Engine. PPC is a promising combustion concept that achieves high efficiency, low soot and NOx emissions simultaneously. However, soot emissions were found to be significantly increased with high EGR and pilot injection, therefore a predictive soot model is needed for PPC engine control. The sensitivity of soot emissions to injection events and late-cycle heat release was investigated on a multi-cylinder heavy duty gasoline PPC engine, which indicated main impact factors during soot formation and oxidation processes. The Hiroyasu empirical model was modified according to the sensitivity results, which indicated main influences during soot formation and oxidation processes. By introducing additional compensation factors, this model can be used to predict soot emissions under pilot injection.
Technical Paper

A Droplet Size Investigation and Comparison Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling Injector for AdBlue Injections

Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

NOx-Conversion and Activation Temperature of a SCR-Catalyst Whilst Using a Novel Biomimetic Flash-Boiling AdBlue Injector on a LD Engine

Yearly 3.3 million premature deaths occur worldwide due to air pollution and NOx pollution counts for nearly one seventh of those [1]. This makes exhaust after-treatment a very important research and has caused the permitted emission levels for NOx to decrease to very low levels, for EURO 6 only 0.4 g/kWh. Recently new legislation on ammonia slip with a limit of 10 ppm NH3 has been added [2], which makes the SCR-technology more challenging. This technology injects small droplets of an aqueous Urea solution into the stream of exhaust gases and through a catalytic reaction within the SCR-catalyst, NOx is converted into Nitrogen and Water. To enable the catalytic reaction the water content in the Urea solution needs to be evaporated and the ammonia molecules need to have sufficient time to mix with the gases prior to the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Timing on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions of Gasoline in HCCI and PPC

In order to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions; however, due to increased fuel stratifications, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC) at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cylinder Engine with Gasoline-Like Fuel towards a High Engine Efficiency

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising combustion concept with high thermodynamic efficiency and low emission level, and also with minimal modification of standard engine hardware. To use PPC in a production oriented engine, the optimal intake charge conditions for PPC should be included in the analysis. The experiments in this paper investigated and confirmed that the optimal intake conditions of net indicated efficiency for PPC are EGR between 50% and 55% as possible and the lambda close to 1.4. Heat-transfer energy and exhaust gas waste-energy contribute to the majority of the energy loss in the engine. The low EGR region has high heat-transfer and low exhaust gas enthalpy-waste, while the high EGR region has low heat-transfer and high exhaust gas waste-enthalpy. The optimal EGR condition is around 50% where the smallest energy loss is found as a trade-off between heat transfer and exhaust-gas enthalpy-waste.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulations of Pre-Chamber Jets' Mixing Characteristics in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

The effect of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on performance of pre-chamber ignition device in a heavy duty natural gas engine has previously been studied by the authors. From the analysis of recorded pre- and main chamber pressure traces, it was observed that a pre-chamber with a larger volume reduced flame development angle and combustion duration while at a given pre-chamber volume, smaller nozzle diameters provided better ignition in the main chamber. The structure of pre-chamber jet and its mixing characteristics with the main chamber charge are believed to play a vital role, and hence CFD simulations are performed to study the fluid dynamic aspects of interaction between the pre-chamber jet and main chamber charge during the period of flame development angle, i.e. before main chamber ignition. It has been observed that jets from a larger pre-chamber penetrates through the main chamber faster due to higher momentum and generates turbulence in the main chamber earlier.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) for Control Purposes

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines. In order to investigate the sensitivity of PPC to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, intake gas temperature, intake gas pressure, and injection timing, these parameters were swept individually at three different loads in a single cylinder diesel engine with gasoline-like fuel. A factor of sensitivity was defined to indicate the combustion's controllability and sensitivity to inlet gas parameters and injection timings. Through analysis of experimental results, a control window of inlet gas parameters and injection timings is obtained at different loads in PPC mode from 5 bar to 10 bar IMEPg load at 1200 rpm. To further study the PPC controllability with injection timing, main injection timing was adjusted to sustain steady combustion phasing subject to perturbation of inlet gas state.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Control of NOx Using Injection Strategy with a Fast Cylinder Pressure Based Emission Model as Feedback

The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
Journal Article

A Fast Crank Angle Resolved Zero-Dimensional NOx Model Implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array

In the automotive industry, the piezo-based in-cylinder pressure sensor is getting commercialized and used in production vehicles. For example, the pressure sensor offers the opportunity to design algorithms for estimation of engine emissions, such as soot and NO , during a combustion cycle. In this paper a zero-dimensional NO model for a diesel engine is implemented that will be used in real time. The model is based on the thermal NO formation and the Zeldovich mechanism using two non-geometrical zones: burned and unburned zone. The influence of EGR on combustion temperature was modeled using a well-known thermodynamic identity where specific heat at constant pressure is included. Specific heat will vary with temperature and the gas composition. The model was implemented in LabVIEW using tools specific for an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array).
Journal Article

Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine Operated with Pre-Chamber Spark Plug and Dilution with Excess Air and EGR

This article deals with application of turbulent jet ignition technique to heavy duty multi-cylinder natural gas engine for mobile application. Pre-chamber spark plugs are identified as a promising means of achieving turbulent jet ignition as they require minimal engine modification with respect to component packaging in cylinder head and the ignition system. Detailed experiments were performed with a 6 cylinder 9.4 liter turbo-charged engine equipped with multi-point gas injection system to compare performance and emissions characteristics of operation with pre-chamber and conventional spark plug. The results indicate that ignition capability is significantly enhanced as flame development angle and combustion duration are reduced by upto 30 % compared to those with conventional spark plugs at certain operating points.
Technical Paper

Applicability of Ionization Current Sensing Technique with Plasma Jet Ignition Using Pre-Chamber Spark Plug in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

This article deals with study of ionization current sensing technique's signal characteristics while operating with pre-chamber spark plug to achieve plasma jet ignition in a 6 cylinder 9 liter turbo-charged natural gas engine under EGR and excess air dilution. Unlike the signal with conventional spark plug which can be divided into distinct chemical and thermal ionization peaks, the signal with pre-chamber spark plug shows a much larger first peak and a negligible second peak thereafter. Many studies in past have found the time of second peak coinciding with the time of maximum cylinder pressure and this correlation has been used as an input to combustion control systems but the absence of second peak makes application of this concept difficult with pre-chamber spark plug.
Technical Paper

The Usefulness of Negative Valve Overlap for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC

Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Reducing Throttle Losses Using Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) in a Heavy-Duty Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.