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Technical Paper

RDE Testing of Passenger Cars: The Effect of the Cold Start on the Emissions Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0747
This paper discusses the importance of the inclusion of emissions from the cold start event during legislative on-road tests on passenger cars (RDE - real driving emissions tests conducted under real-world driving conditions, as defined by EU legislation). Results from a recently-registered gasoline-powered vehicle are presented, with the main focus on the comparison of exhaust emission results: excluding/including the cold start during the initial phase of the RDE test. Cold start is the most challenging aspect of emissions control for vehicles with spark ignition engines and the inclusion of the cold start event in RDE test procedure has wide-ranging implications both for the testing process and compliance with RDE legislation via optimisation of aftertreatment systems and the engine calibration. In addition to some theoretical arguments, the results of an RDE-compliant test performed using the aforementioned procedures are presented.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gaseous Emissions from a Hybrid Vehicle and a Non-Hybrid Vehicle under Real Driving Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1272
In this study, two vehicles were tested under real driving conditions with gaseous exhaust emissions measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). One of the vehicles featured a hybrid powertrain with a spark ignition internal combustion engine, while the other vehicle featured a non-hybrid (conventional) spark ignition internal combustion engine. Aside from differences in the powertrain, the two test vehicles were of very similar size, weight and aerodynamic profile, meaning that the power demand for a given driving trace was very similar for both vehicles. The test route covered urban conditions (but did include driving on a road with speed limit 90 km/h). The approximate test route distance was 12 km and the average speed was very close to 40 km/h.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Multiple Vehicle Types Running on Two Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1007
This paper reports testing conducted on multiple vehicle types over two European legislative driving cycles (the current NEDC and the incoming WLTC), using a mixture of legislative and non-legislative measurement devices to characterise the particulate emissions and examine the impact of the test cycle and certain vehicle characteristics (engine/fuel type, idle stop system, inertia) on particulate emissions. European legislative measurement techniques were successfully used to quantify particle mass (PM) and number (PN); an AVL Microsoot sensor was also used. Overall, the two driving cycles used in this study had a relatively limited impact on particulate emissions from the test vehicles, but certain differences were visible and in some cases statistically significant.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Emission Factors in RDE Tests As Well as in NEDC and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Tests

2016-04-05
2016-01-0980
This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions of Gaseous and Solid Pollutants Measured over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1008
Concern over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air quality has made exhaust emissions from passenger cars a topic interest at an international level. This situation has led to the re-evaluation of testing procedures in order to produce more “representative” results. Laboratory procedures for testing exhaust emissions are built around a driving cycle. Cycles may be developed in one context but later used in another: for example, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was not developed to measure fuel consumption, but has ended up being used to that end. The new Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test cycle (the WLTC) will sooner or later be used for measuring regulated exhaust emissions. Legal limits for emissions of regulated pollutants are inherently linked to the test conditions (and therefore to the driving cycle); inter-cycle correlations for regulated pollutants are an important research direction.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Particulate Emissions from Euro 5 Passenger Cars with DISI Engines Tested at Multiple Ambient Temperatures

2015-09-06
2015-24-2517
Particulate matter in vehicular exhaust is now under great scrutiny. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. Current legislative test procedures represent a best-case scenario - more aggressive driving cycles and lower ambient temperatures can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Two Euro 5 vehicles with DI SI engines were laboratory tested at three ambient temperatures on two different commercially available fuels, with particulate emissions results compared to results from the same fuels when the vehicles were tested at 25°C.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from CNG Fueled Vehicles in Light of Euro 6 Regulations and the New WLTP/GTR 15 Test Procedure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1061
The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Vehicles Tested over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Test Cycles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1065
Due to concern over emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG; particularly carbon dioxide - CO2), energy consumption and sustainability, many jurisdictions now regulate fuel consumption, fuel economy or exhaust emissions of CO2. Testing is carried out under laboratory conditions according to local or regional procedures. However, a harmonized global test procedure with its own test cycle has been created: the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle - WLTC. In this paper, the WLTC is compared to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the FTP-75 cycle used in the USA. A series of emissions tests were conducted at BOSMAL on a chassis dynamometer in a Euro 6-complaint test facility to determine the impact of the test cycle on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. While there are multiple differences in the test cycles in terms of dynamicity, duration, distance covered, mean/maximum speed, etc, differences in results obtained over the three test cycles were reasonably limited.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions, Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Two Vehicles Tested on Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2824
Ethanol has a long history as an automotive fuel and is currently used in various blends and formats as a fuel for spark ignition engines in many areas of the world. The addition of ethanol to petrol has been shown to reduce certain types of emissions, but increase others. This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental program carried out under standard laboratory conditions to determine the influence of different quantities of petrol-ethanol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. The ethanol-petrol blends were laboratory tested in two European passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle, using a constant volume sampler and analyzers for quantification of both regulated and unregulated emissions.
Journal Article

Particulate Emissions from European Vehicles Featuring Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Tested Under Laboratory Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1608
Direct injection gasoline engines have been gaining popularity for passenger car applications, particularly in the EU. It is well known that emissions of particulate matter are an inherent disadvantage of spark ignition engine with direct injection. Direct injection of gasoline can lead to the formation of substantial numbers of particulates, a proportion of which survive to be emitted from the vehicle's exhaust. EU legislation limits particle mass (PM) emissions; particle number (PN) is soon to be limited, although an opt-out means that dedicated filters will not be required immediately. A range of tests were conducted on a pool of Euro 5 passenger cars in BOSMAL's climate controlled emissions laboratory, using EU legislative test methodology. In addition, further measurements were performed (particle size distribution, tests at multiple ambient temperatures).
Journal Article

The Impact of Fuel Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Featuring Spark Ignition Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1463
Ethanol has long been a fuel of considerable interest for use as an automotive fuel in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. In recent years, concerns over oil supplies, sustainability and geopolitical factors have lead multiple jurisdictions to mandate the blending of ethanol into standard gasoline. The impact of blend ethanol content on gaseous emissions has been widely studied; particulate matter emissions have received somewhat less attention, despite these emissions being regulated in the USA. Currently, in the EU particulate matter emissions from SI engines are partially regulated - only vehicles featuring direct injection SI engines are subject to emissions limits. A range of experiments was conducted to determine the impact of fuel ethanol content on the emissions of solid pollutants from Euro 5 passenger cars.
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Cold Start Emissions of Gaseous and Solid Pollutants from Euro 5 Vehicles featuring Direct and Indirect Injection Spark-Ignition Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0174
Spark ignition (SI) engines are susceptible to excess emissions at low ambient temperatures. Direct injection leads to the formation of particulate matter (PM), and direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study compares excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants following cold start at a low ambient temperature and the standard test temperature. Euro 5 passenger cars were tested on a chassis dynamometer within BOSMAL's climate-controlled test chamber, according to European Union legislation (−7°C over the urban driving cycle (UDC), and at 25°C). Two vehicles were also tested over the entire New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emissions of regulated compounds and carbon dioxide were analyzed; particulate emissions (both mass and number) were also measured, all using standard procedures.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Ammonia Emissions from Light-Duty SI Vehicles in the Context of Emissions of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds

2013-04-08
2013-01-1346
Ammonia is a reactive nitrogen compound (RNC - nitrogen-based gaseous molecules with multiple adverse impacts on human health and the biosphere). A three-way catalyst can produce substantial quantities of ammonia through various reaction pathways. This study presents a brief literature review, and presents experimental data on ammonia emissions from seven Euro 5 passenger cars, using different gasoline fuels and a CNG fuel. All vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle. For six of the vehicles, ammonia was quantified directly at tailpipe (using two different analyzers); emissions from one vehicle were subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis. Emissions of ammonia from these vehicles were generally low in comparison to other chassis dynamometer studies, perhaps attributable to the favorable laboratory test conditions and the age of the vehicles.
Journal Article

An Investigation into Cold Start Emissions from Compression Ignition Engines using EU Legislative Emissions Test Procedures

2013-04-08
2013-01-1304
Diesel (compression ignition, CI) engines are increasingly exploited in light-duty vehicles, due to their high efficiency and favorable characteristics. Limited work has been performed on CI cold-start emissions at low temperatures. This paper presents a discussion and a brief literature review of diesel cold-start emissions phenomena at low ambient temperatures and the results of tests performed on two European light-duty vehicles with Euro 5 CI engines. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer within an advanced climate-controlled test laboratory at BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute, Poland to determine the deterioration in emission of gaseous (HC, CO, NOx, CO2) and solid (PM, PN) pollutants following the EU legislative test procedure (testing at 20°C to 30°C and at -7°C, performed over the NEDC). The tests revealed appreciable increases in emissions of regulated pollutants.
Technical Paper

A Study of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends Influence on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Light-Duty Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1052
This paper evaluates the possibility of using bioethanol blends (mixtures of gasoline fuel and ethanol derived from biomass) of varying strengths in an unmodified, small-displacement European Euro 5 light-duty gasoline vehicle. The influence of different proportions of bioethanol in the fuel blend (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of gaseous pollutants, such as: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide was tested at normal (22°C) and low (-7°C) ambient temperatures for a light-duty vehicle during the NEDC cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Engine performance metrics were also tested. All test results are presented in comparison to standard European gasoline (E5). Tailpipe emission data presented here suggest that modest improvements in air quality could result from usage of low-to-mid ethanol blends in the vehicle tested.
Technical Paper

Excess Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Modern Spark Ignition Passenger Cars at Low Ambient Temperatures

2012-04-16
2012-01-1070
Cold starts are demanding events for spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. When the temperatures of the engine oil, coolant and the engine block are close to the ambient temperature, start-up can be difficult to achieve without fuel enrichment, which results in significant excesses in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In general, the lower the ambient temperature, the more substantial these problems are. Many nations frequently experience sub-zero ambient temperatures, and the European Union (among others) has specified an emissions test at low ambient temperature (-7°C). Passenger cars typically experience one to two cold start events per day, and so both cold starts and the warm-up period that follows are significant in terms of exhaust emissions. This paper examines emissions at low ambient temperatures with a special focus on cold start; emissions are also compared to start-up at a higher ambient temperature (24°C).
Journal Article

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

2012-04-16
2012-01-0366
The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Ammonia Emission Factors from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

2012-04-16
2012-01-1095
Vehicular ammonia emissions are currently unregulated, even though ammonia is harmful for a variety of reasons, and the gas is classed as toxic. Ammonia emissions represent a serious threat to air quality, particularly in urban settings; an ammonia emissions limit may be introduced in future legislation. Production of ammonia within the cylinder has long been known to be very limited. However, having reached its light-off temperature, a three-way catalyst can produce substantial quantities of ammonia through various reaction pathways. Production of ammonia is symptomatic of overly reducing conditions within the three-way catalyst (TWC), and depends somewhat upon the particular precious metals used. Emission is markedly higher during periods where demand for engine power is higher, when the engine will be operating under open-loop conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends on Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of an Unmodified Light-Duty SI Vehicle

2011-09-11
2011-24-0177
Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, biofuel usage is increasing in multiple markets. Ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic.
Technical Paper

The Comparison of the Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle in On-road and NEDC Tests

2010-04-12
2010-01-1298
The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles have been carried out on a chassis dynamometer (NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US). Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions and that is why we should analyze the correlation of the laboratory versus on-road test results. The paper presents the on-road test results obtained in an urban and extra urban cycles. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS has been used. The device is an analyzer enabling an on-line measurement of the emission gases concentration in a real driving cycle under real road conditions. The road tests were performed on road portions of several kilometers each. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained for the same vehicle during the NEDC test on a chassis dynamometer. The comparative analysis was performed including the urban and extra-urban cycles.
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