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Technical Paper

Bending Process Optimization of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Tubes for Body Structural and Chassis Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0230
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural and chassis components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube with a bending, pre-forming and hydroforming process. Challenging grades and bend severity require a careful optimization of the bending procedure. A joint project between Ford and ArcelorMittal Tubular Products investigated suitable bending parameters for severe bends using commercially available thin-walled DP780 and HSLA350 tubes. This paper summarizes the measurement methods found to be capable of capturing small differences in bending formability and details the influence of bender variables such as boost, pressure die, center-line bend radius and bend angle on the wrinkling, thinning and springback of these tubes. As a result of this work, recommendations were made as to effective bender set-ups for these tubes.
Technical Paper

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process Optimization of 1.0 mm Usibor® 1500 P Steel to 1.5 mm Uncoated Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Steel Joint for Automotive Body Structural Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0446
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive steels for automobile makers. The usage of AHSS steels is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with new safety and fuel economy regulations. These new steels have significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures due to heat-affected zones (HAZ) at the weld joint. In this study Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of a lap joint configuration consisting of 1.0 mm Usibor® 1500 steel to uncoated Dual Phase 780 (DP780) steel was investigated. The objective of the study was to understand the wire feed rate (WFR) and torch (or robot) travel speed (TTS) influence on lap joint tensile strength.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding Evaluation of Transformation Induced Plasticity 780 (TRIP780) Steel for Automotive Body Structural Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-0805
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5–10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced steels.
Technical Paper

Bending Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

2009-04-20
2009-01-0085
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube using a series of manufacturing steps that often include bending, preforming and hydroforming. Challenging grades and bend severity require a sensitive optimization of the tubular bending process. To this end, it is necessary to achieve an understanding of efficient measurement methods capable of capturing small differences in bending formability. In preparation for an optimization of a 90o bend using Dual Phase 780 (DP780) and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA350) thin walled tube, the measurement techniques of three formability characteristics: thinning, strain, and final geometry were statistically evaluated. In addition, the difference in the bending behaviour of the two grades was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Performance of Fusion Welded Uncoated DP780 Coach Joints

2008-04-14
2008-01-0695
Typical automotive joints are lap, coach, butt and miter joints. In tubular joining applications, a coach joint is common when one tube is joined to another tube without the use of brackets. Various fusion joining processes are popular in joining coach joints. Common fusion joining processes are Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Laser and Laser Hybrid, and Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, fusion welded 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 steel coach joints were investigated. Laser, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and laser hybrid (Laser + GMAW) welding processes were selected. Metallurgical properties of the DP780 fusion welds were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints for all three joining processes. It was found that joint fit-up, type of welding process, and process parameters, especially travel speed, have significant impact on static and fatigue performance of the coach joints in this study.
Technical Paper

Laser Hybrid Welding of Aluminized Coated Boron Steel for Automotive Body Construction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1112
The automotive industry is in constant pursuit of alternative materials and processes to address the ever changing needs of their customer and the environment. This paper presents findings from a study using a laser hybrid process (laser with MIG) to join aluminum-silicon coated boron steel (USIBOR). In this report the influence of heat from the laser hybrid welding process and its effect on the coated boron steel is discussed. In order to understand the affect from laser hybrid joining process, bead on plate experiments were conducted using 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Further, two lap joint configurations were also investigated using the 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Based on the test results, a significant reduction in tensile strength was observed at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) Process Optimization for Coated and Uncoated Dual Phase 780 Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1113
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties, and downgage potential for mass avoidance, as compared to mild steels. These new materials also pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are needed to weld AHSS materials. In this paper, weld lobe development for various gages of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) steel is discussed.
Journal Article

Aluminum Vehicle Body Construction and Enabling Manufacturing Technologies

2008-04-14
2008-01-1089
Aluminum materials are very attractive for lightweight applications. Aluminum usage in automotive vehicles has increased over time as manufacturers search for affordable weight reduction applications and high-performing, low-investment construction methods. Further application of aluminum is likely with the discussion of increased tailpipe emission requirements and increased fuel economy regulations. Currently, the Audi A8, Audi R8, Ferrari F430, Lamborghini Gallardo and Jaguar XJ8 are aluminum intensive vehicles that are in production. In this paper, manufacturing methods in forming and joining technologies for body construction is discussed. Various forming technologies for body in white construction and body closures are discussed as well as joining technologies for body closures and body structures. Application of materials and processes in the current automotive applications as well as economic analysis for spaceframe and unibody body construction is discussed.
Technical Paper

Design for Assembly: An AHP Approach for Automotive Front End Component Design Evaluation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0522
Design for assembly (DFA) is a prominent strategy for manufacturing cost reduction in automotive industries. DFA in automotive component design is a complicated process since several competing targets have to be considered simultaneously in designing various functions and features. It requires specialized design knowledge as well as extensive quantitative analysis, comparison and evaluation. Analytical Hierarchic Process (AHP) is one of the tools that can assist such design and evaluation processes. It has been successfully applied in various processes when multiple competing goals and characteristics are involved. In this paper, we propose the application of AHP for DFA in automotive component design and present a case study involving car front end component design.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Geometry and HAZ Softening on Fatigue Performance of DP780 GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-0632
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 was investigated. GMAW welding parameters for lap joints of this steel were developed in order to obtain different weld geometries defined by weld toe angle, weld leg sizes, and weld penetration. Metallurgical properties of the joints were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static and fatigue tests were conducted on the welded joints. Effect of weld geometry and HAZ softening on fatigue performance including fatigue life, crack initiation site and propagation path of the joints will be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Weldability of Three Metal Stack Dual Phase 600 Hot-dipped Galvanized Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1363
Fuel economy and federal safety regulations are driving automotive companies to use Dual Phase and other Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in vehicle body structures. Joining and assembly plays a crucial role in the selection of these steels. Specifications are available for the resistance spot welding (RSW) of lower strength sheet steels, covering many aspects of the welding process from the stabilization procedure to endurance testing. Currently, specifications in the automotive industry for RSW with AHSS are limited. It is well known that welding of a thickness ratio greater than 1:2 poses a challenge. To utilize thinner gauge AHSS panels on body-in-white, welding schedules to join the thin to thick sheet steel stack-up are needed. Most of the existing published work was conducted on uncoated sheets and welded to the same thickness.
Technical Paper

Effect of Materials Stack-ups and Microhardness Distribution on Fatigue Performance of DP600 and Boron Steel GMAW Lap Joint

2007-04-16
2007-01-1356
With the increasing demand for safety, energy saving and emission reduction, Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have become very attractive materials for automobile makers. The usage of AHSS materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5-10 years with new safety and fuel economy regulations. These new materials have significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Welding of AHSS remains one of the technical challenges in the successful application of AHSS in automobile structures, especially when durability of the welded structures is required. In this study, 2.0 mm uncoated DP600 and 2.0 mm uncoated boron (heat treated) steel lap joint configuration was investigated. Metallurgical properties of the DP600 to boron steel dissimilar steel lap joints were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints.
Technical Paper

Design for Integrated Assembly and Disassembly of Automotive Products

2006-04-03
2006-01-1423
Manufacturing industries have implemented design for manufacturing and design for assembly guidelines and techniques for many years. These lead to better designed products and lower manufacturing and assembly costs. In recent years, due to environmental and economical reasons, there is a growing interest in developing effective methods for product design considering product disassembly, component remanufacturing and material recovery. As a result of which numerous design guidelines for disassembly and algorithms for disassembly sequence generation are proposed. However, only a handful research articles presented integrated approaches to design for assembly and disassembly. In this paper, an integrated method is proposed to analyze the ease of assembly and disassembly using analytic hierarchic process (AHP) approach.
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