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Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0671
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Compression Ratio on High Load Performance and Knock Behavior for Gasoline Port-Fuel Injection, Natural Gas Direct Injection and Blended Operation in a Spark Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0661
Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5.
Journal Article

Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2364
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Feedforward Control of Fuel Distribution on Advanced Dual-Fuel Engines with Varying Intake Valve Closing Timings

2016-10-17
2016-01-2312
This study examines the dynamics and control of an engine operated with late intake valve closure (LIVC) timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode. The engine features a fuel delivery system in which diesel is direct-injected and natural gas is port-injected. Despite the benefits of LIVC and dual-fuel strategy, combining these two techniques resulted in efficiency losses due to the variability of the combustion process across cylinders. The difference in power production across cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC* to 38% at an IVC of 620 °ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution as the intake valve remains open longer in the compression stroke. This paper describes an approach for controlling the amount of fuel injected into each cylinders’ port of an inline six- cylinder heavy-duty dual-fuel engine to minimize the variations in fuel distribution across cylinder.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Speciation in Blended Gasoline-Natural Gas Operation on a Spark-Ignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2169
The high octane rating and more plentiful domestic supply of natural gas make it an excellent alternative to gasoline. Recent studies have shown that using natural gas in dual fuel engines provides one possible strategy for leveraging the advantages of both natural gas and gasoline. In particular, such engines been able to improve overall engine efficiencies and load capacity when they leverage direct injection of the natural gas fuel. While the benefits of these engine concepts are still being explored, differences in fuel composition, combustion process and in-cylinder mixing could lead to dramatically different emissions which can substantially impact the effectiveness of the engine’s exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to explore this topic, this study examined the variations in speciated hydrocarbon emissions which occur for different fuel blends of E10 and compressed natural gas and for different fuel injection strategies on a spark-ignition engine.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2293
The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0806
Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

Comparison of RCCI Operation with and without EGR over the Full Operating Map of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0794
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve high efficiency combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is reduce the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Natural gas/diesel RCCI engine operation is compared over the EPA Heavy-Duty 13 mode supplemental emissions test with and without EGR.
Journal Article

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations in Power Production in a Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine Leveraging Late Intake Valve Closings

2016-04-05
2016-01-0776
Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode featuring a port-injection and a direct-injection fueling system in order to improve fuel efficiency and engine performance. Experimental results show increased cylinder-to-cylinder variation in IMEP as IVC timing moves from 570°ATDC to 610°ATDC, indicating an increasingly uneven fuel distribution between cylinders.
Technical Paper

Impact of Effective Compression Ratio on Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1796
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a DISI Production Engine Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol and ISO-Stoichiometric Alcohol Blends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0768
Stricter CO2 and emissions regulations are pushing spark ignition engines more and more towards downsizing, enabled through direct injection and turbocharging. The advantages which come with direct injection, such as increased charge density and an elevated knock resistance, are even more pronounced when using low carbon number alcohols instead of gasoline. This is mainly due to the higher heat of vaporization and the lower air-to-fuel ratio of light alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. These alcohols are also attractive alternatives to gasoline because they can be produced from renewable resources. Because they are liquid, they can be easily stored in a vehicle. In this respect, the performance and engine-out emissions (NOx, CO, HC and PM) of methanol, ethanol and butanol were examined on a 4 cylinder 2.4 DI production engine and are compared with those on neat gasoline.
Journal Article

Impact of Cetane Number on Combustion of a Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1309
Dual-fuel combustion using liquid fuels with differing reactivity has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated efficiency. Varying fractions of gasoline-type and diesel-type fuels enable operation across a range of low- and mid-load operating conditions. Expanding the operating range to cover the full operating range of a heavy-duty diesel engine, while maintaining the efficiency and emissions benefits, is a key objective. With dissimilar properties of the two utilized fuels lying at the heart of the dual-fuel concept, a tool for enabling this load range expansion is altering the properties of the two test fuels - this study focuses on altering the reactivity of the diesel fuel component. Tests were conducted on a 13L six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to run dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection.
Technical Paper

Impact of Blending Gasoline with Isobutanol Compared to Ethanol on Efficiency, Performance and Emissions of a Recreational Marine 4-Stroke Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1230
This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
Journal Article

Meeting RFS2 Targets with an E10/E15-like Fuel - Experimental and Analytical Assessment of Higher Alcohols in Multi-component Blends with Gasoline

2013-10-14
2013-01-2612
This paper evaluates the potential of adding higher alcohols to gasoline blendstock in an attempt to improve overall fuel performance. The alcohols considered include ethanol, normal- and iso-structures of propanol, butanol and pentanol as well as normal-hexanol (C2-C6). Fuel performance is quantified based on energy content, knock resistance as well as petroleum displacement and promising multi-component blends are systematically identified based on property prediction methods. These promising multi-component blends, as well as their respective reference fuels, are subsequently tested for efficiency and emissions performance utilizing a gasoline direct injection, spark ignition engine. The engine test results confirm that combustion and efficiency of tailored multi-component blends closely match those of the reference fuels. Regulated emissions stemming from combustion of these blends are equal or lower compared to the reference fuels across the tested engine speed and load regime.
Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

2013-09-24
2013-01-2422
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
Technical Paper

The Effects of CO, H2, and C3H6 on the SCR Reactions of an Fe Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1062
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles Using Engine in the Loop

2012-04-16
2012-01-1280
Their easy availability, lower well-to-wheel emissions, and relative ease of use with existing engine technologies have made ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends a viable alternative to gasoline for use in spark-ignition (SI) engines. The lower energy density of ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends, however, results in higher volumetric fuel consumption compared with gasoline. Also, the higher latent heat of vaporization can result in cold-start issues with higher-level ethanol blends. On the other hand, a higher octane number, which indicates resistance to knock and potentially enables more optimal combustion phasing, results in better engine efficiency, especially at higher loads. This paper compares the fuel consumption and emissions of two ethanol blends (E50 and E85) with those for gasoline when used in conventional (non-hybrid) and power-split-type plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).
Technical Paper

Bridging the Gap between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1179
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has received much attention in recent years due to its ability to reduce both fuel consumption and NO emissions compared to normal spark-ignited (SI) combustion. However, due to the limited operating range of HCCI, production feasible engines will need to employ a combination of combustion strategies, such as stoichiometric SI combustion at high loads and leaner burn spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) and HCCI at intermediate and low loads. The goal of this study was to extend the high load limit of HCCI into the SACI region while maintaining a stoichiometric equivalence ratio. Experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with fully flexible valve actuation. In-cylinder pressure rise rates and combustion stability were controlled using cooled external EGR, spark assist, and negative valve overlap. Several engine loads within the SACI regime were investigated.
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