Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Towards Optimal Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0050
Thermoelectric generator has very quickly become a hot research topic in the last five years because its broad application area and very attractive features such as no moving parts, low maintenance, variety of thermoelectric materials that total together cover a wide temperature range. The biggest disadvantage of the thermoelectric generator is its low conversion efficiency. So that when design and manufacture a thermoelectric generator for exhaust waste heat recovery from an automotive engine, the benefit of fuel consumption from applying a thermoelectric generator would be very sensitive to the weight, the dimensions, the cost and the practical conversion efficiency. Additionally, the exhaust gas conditions vary with the change of engine operating point. This creates a big challenge for the design of the hot side heat exchanger in terms of optimizing the electrical output of the thermoelectric generator during an engine transient cycle.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Modelling Techniques for Thermoelectric Generator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0144
The application of state-of-art thermoelectric generator (TEG) in automotive engine has potential to reduce more than 2% fuel consumption and hence the CO2 emissions. This figure is expected to be increased to 5%~10% in the near future when new thermoelectric material with higher properties is fabricated. However, in order to maximize the TEG output power, there are a few issues need to be considered in the design stage such as the number of modules, the connection of modules, the geometry of the thermoelectric module, the DC-DC converter circuit, the geometry of the heat exchanger especially the hot side heat exchanger etc. These issues can only be investigated via a proper TEG model. The authors introduced four ways of TEG modelling which in the increasing complexity order are MATLB function based model, MATLAB Simscape based Simulink model, GT-power TEG model and CFD STAR-CCM+ model. Both Simscape model and GT-Power model have intrinsic dynamic model performance.
Technical Paper

The Position Control of a Gasoline Engine during Shutdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1630
Since the first stop-start system introduced in 1983, more and more vehicles have been equipped with this kind of automatic engine control system. Recently, it was found that there is strong correlation between engine resting position and the subsequent engine start time. The utilization of the synchronization time working from a required engine stop position prior the engine start request was shown to reduce start times. Hence the position control of an engine during shutdown becomes more significant. A naturally aspirated engine was modelled using the GT-Suite modelling environment to facilitate the development of position controllers using Simulink ®. The use of respectively the throttle and a belt mounted motor generator to provide a control input was considered. Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID), sliding mode and deadbeat control strategies were each used in this study.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Number of Thermoelectric Modules in a Thermoelectric Generator for a Specific Engine Drive Cycle

2016-04-05
2016-01-0232
Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Thermoelectric Materials and Operation Conditions on the Performance of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive

2016-04-05
2016-01-0219
An automotive engine can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert a portion of the exhaust gas enthalpy into electricity. Due to the relatively low cost of the incoming thermal energy, the efficiency of the TEG is not an overriding consideration. Instead, the maximum power output (MPO) is the first priority. The MPO of the TEG is closely related to not only the thermoelectric materials properties, but also the operating conditions. This study shows the development of a numerical TEG model integrated with a plate-fin heat exchanger, which is designed for automotive waste heat recovery (WHR) in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path in a diesel engine. This model takes into account the following factors: the exhaust gas properties’ variation along the flow direction, temperature influence on the thermoelectric materials, thermal contact effect, and heat transfer leakage effect. Its accuracy has been checked using engine test data.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Exhaust Gas Recirculation Mass Flow Rate in Modern Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0550
The intrinsic model accuracy limit of a commonly used Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) mass flow rate model in diesel engine air path control is discussed in this paper. This EGR mass flow rate model is based on the flow of a compressible ideal gas with unchanged specific heat ratio through a restriction cross-area within a duct. A practical identification procedure of the model parameters is proposed based on the analysis of the engine data and model structure. This procedure has several advantages which include simplicity, low computation burden and low engine test cost. It is shown that model tuning requires only an EGR valve sweep test at a few engine steady state operating points.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0617
Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
Journal Article

Design and Optimisation of the Propulsion Control Strategy for a Pneumatic Hybrid City Bus

2016-04-05
2016-01-1175
A control strategy has been designed for a city bus equipped with a pneumatic hybrid propulsion system. The control system design is based on the precise management of energy flows during both energy storage and regeneration. Energy recovered from the braking process is stored in the form of compressed air that is redeployed for engine start and to supplement the engine air supply during vehicle acceleration. Operation modes are changed dynamically and the energy distribution is controlled to realize three principal functions: Stop-Start, Boost and Regenerative Braking. A forward facing simulation model facilitates an analysis of the vehicle dynamic performance, engine transient response, fuel economy and energy usage.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Performance Improvement of Different Pneumatic Hybrid Boost Systems and Their Ability to Reduce Turbo-Lag

2015-04-14
2015-01-1159
The objective of the work reported in this paper was to identify how turbocharger response time (“turbo-lag”) is best managed using pneumatic hybrid technology. Initially methods to improve response time have been analysed and compared. Then the evaluation of the performance improvement is conducted using two techniques: engine brake torque response and vehicle acceleration, using the engine simulation code, GT-SUITE [1]. Three pneumatic hybrid boost systems have been considered: Intake Boost System (I), Intake Port Boost System (IP) and Exhaust Boost System (E). The three systems respectively integrated in a six-cylinder 7.25 l heavy-duty diesel engine for a city bus application have been modelled. When the engine load is increased from no load to full load at 1600 rpm, the development of brake torque has been compared and analysed. The findings show that all three systems significantly reduce the engine response time, with System I giving the fastest engine response.
Technical Paper

Combustion Model Based Explanation of the Pmax and IMEP Coupling Phenomenon in Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1350
A three-pulse fuel injection mode has been studied by implementing two-input-two-output (2I2O) control of both peak combustion pressure (Pmax) and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The engine test results show that at low engine speed, the first main injection duration and the second main injection duration are able to be used to control Pmax and IMEP respectively. This control is exercised within a limited but promising area of the engine map. However, at high engine speed, Pmax and IMEP are strongly coupled together and then can not be separately controlled by the two control variables: the first and the second main injection duration. A simple zero-dimensional (0D) combustion model together with correlation analysis method was used to find out why the coupling strength of Pmax and IMEP increases with engine speed increased.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model of Pmax and IMEP for Intra-Cycle Control

2014-04-01
2014-01-1344
In order to identify predictive models for a diesel engine combustion process, combustion cylinder pressure together with other fuel path variables such as rail pressure, injector current and sleeve pressure of 1000 continuous cycles were sampled and collected at high resolution. Using these engine steady state test data, three types of modeling approach have been studied. The first is the Auto-Regressive-Moving-Average (ARMA) model which had limited prediction ability for both peak combustion pressure (Pmax) and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP). By applying correlation analysis, proper inputs were found for a linear predictive model of Pmax and IMEP respectively. The prediction performance of this linear model is excellent with a 30% fit number for both Pmax and IMEP. Further nonlinear modeling work shows that even a nonlinear Neural Network (NN) model does not have improved prediction performance compared to the linear predictive model.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization of Regenerative Braking Control Strategy in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine City Bus using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology

2014-04-01
2014-01-1807
Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of a vehicle which is subject to frequent braking events such as a city bus. As one way to achieve this goal, pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into tanks during braking, and then reuses the compressed air to power an air starter to realize a regenerative Stop-Start function. Unlike the pure electric or hybrid electric passenger car, the pneumatic hybrid city bus uses the rear axle to achieve regenerative braking function. In this paper we discuss research into the blending of pneumatic regenerative braking and mechanical frictional braking at the rear axle. The aim of the braking function is to recover as much energy as possible and at the same time distribute the total braking effort between the front and rear axles to achieve stable braking performance.
Journal Article

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1748
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time.
Technical Paper

Addressing the Heat Exchange Question for Thermo-Electric Generators

2013-04-08
2013-01-0550
The use of thermo-electric (TE) generation systems in internal combustion engines (ICEs) to reduce the carbon dioxide emission by harnessing the exhaust thermal energy is showing increasing promise. In addition, integration with after treatment devices is a development route for this technology that offers a great potential. Recent work on TE systems have shown that the overall efficiency of present TE generation systems are constrained by, the limitations of the conversion efficiency and operating temperatures of TE materials; fabrication quality, durability and thermal performance of the thermo-electric modules (TEMs); geometrical configuration and heat exchange efficiency of thermo-electric generator (TEG) and; conversion techniques of the TEG's electrical output to a form suitable for vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Disturbance Sources in the Diesel Engine Combustion Process

2013-04-08
2013-01-0318
When a diesel engine is running at steady state, the diesel combustion process still has some level of variation from cycle to cycle, even if engine load and all control inputs are fixed. This variation is a disturbance for the speed governor, and it could lead to less than optimal engine performance in terms of fuel economy, exhaust gas emission and noise emission. The most effective way to reduce this steady state combustion variation is by applying fuel path feedback control. The control action can be performed at a fixed frequency, or at a defined cycle event time. Intra-cycle control has the highest capacity to suppress the combustion deviation, as it measures the current cycle combustion performance and compensates for it within the same cycle using a very fast control response. Correct knowledge and a model of the disturbance sources and combustion variation patterns are essential in the design process of this intra-cycle control strategy.
Technical Paper

Online Adjustment of Start of Injection and Fuel Rail Pressure Based on Combustion Process Parameters of Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0315
Most modern diesel engines are equipped with common fuel rail system. The common fuel rail pressure and start of injection are two important fuel path control variables which are needed to be carefully calibrated over all engine operation range. They both have big effects on engine emissions, fuel consumptions and combustion noise performance. Though there are mature techniques such as design of experiment, model based calibration together with optimization method for engine calibration task, the engine test points are still many and the calibration costs are still high. Besides, the outputs of the calibration are look up tables or maps which are used in engine open loop control strategy in engine control system. Open loop control system has no adaptive and disturbance rejection ability. So the initially optimally calibrated look up control tables will gradually become less and less optimal when the engine is aging.
Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of the Libralato Thermodynamic Cycle Based Rotary Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1620
In this paper an initial dynamic analysis of the Libralato rotary engine prototype is conducted based on a joint engine model. Through the investigation of the Libralato thermodynamic cycle and the geometry characteristics of the engine structure, a multi-chamber core engine model is developed via GT-Power, a commercial software. The whole engine working volume is divided into 5 parts, including an intake chamber, a compression chamber, a combustion chamber, an expansion chamber and a virtual chamber which is used to correct the actual volume variation of the expansion chamber at the end of expansion stroke. The performance of the developed model is validated by experimental results. Then an initial analysis on the engine thermodynamic cycle, the engine operation characteristics and the gas exchange process is conducted. Furthermore, a multi-body mechanism model is designed to analyze the mechanical properties of the engine.
Journal Article

Input and Structure Choices of Neural Networks on the Fuel Flow Rate Prediction in the Transient Operation Condition

2012-11-01
2011-01-2458
Measurement accuracy and repeatability for fuel rate is the key to successfully improve fuel economy of diesel engines as fuel economy could only be achieve by precisely controlling air/fuel ratio and monitor real-time fuel consumption. The volumetric and gravimetric measurement principles are well-known methods to measure the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. However, the fuel flow rate measured by these methods is not suitable for either real-time control or real-time measurement purposes. The problem concerning discontinuous data of fuel flow rate measured by using an AVL 733s fuel meter was solved for the steady state scenario by using neural networks. It is easier to choose inputs of the neural networks for the steady state scenario because the inputs could be chosen as the particular inputs which excited the system in the application.
Technical Paper

Explicit Model Predictive Control of the Diesel Engine Fuel Path

2012-04-16
2012-01-0893
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
X