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Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

Measured and Predicted Soot Particle Emissions from Natural Gas Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2518
Due to the new challenge of meeting number-based regulations for particulate matter (PM), a numerical and experimental study has been conducted to better understand particulate formation in engines fuelled with compressed natural gas. The study has been conducted on a Heavy-Duty, Euro VI, 4-cylinder, spark ignited engine, with multipoint sequential phased injection and stoichiometric combustion. For the experimental measurements two different instruments were used: a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a fast-response particle size spectrometer (DMS) the latter able also to provide a particle size distribution of the measured particles in the range from 5 to 1000 nm. Experimental measurements in both stationary and transient conditions were carried out. The data using the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) were useful to detect which operating conditions lead to high numbers of particles. Then a further transient test was used for a more detailed and deeper analysis.
Journal Article

Applying Advanced CFD Analysis Tools to Study Differences between Start-of-Main and Start-of-Post Injection Flow, Temperature and Chemistry Fields Due to Combustion of Main-Injected Fuel

2015-09-06
2015-24-2436
This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
Journal Article

Direct Dual Fuel Stratification, a Path to Combine the Benefits of RCCI and PPC

2015-04-14
2015-01-0856
Control of the timing and magnitude of heat release is one of the biggest challenges for premixed compression ignition, especially when attempting to operate at high load. Single-fuel strategies such as partially premixed combustion (PPC) use direct injection of gasoline to stratify equivalence ratio and retard heat release, thereby reducing pressure rise rate and enabling high load operation. However, retarding the heat release also reduces the maximum work extraction, effectively creating a tradeoff between efficiency and noise. Dual-fuel strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) use premixed gasoline and direct injection of diesel to stratify both equivalence ratio and fuel reactivity, which allows for greater control over the timing and duration of heat release. This enables combustion phasing closer to top dead center (TDC), which is thermodynamically favorable.
Journal Article

Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0855
The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
Journal Article

The Effect of Operating Parameters on Soot Emissions in GDI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1071
Due to the upcoming regulations for particulate matter (PM) emissions from GDI engines, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling study to predict soot emissions (both mass and solid particle number) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines was undertaken to provide insights on how and why soot emissions are formed from GDI engines. In this way, better methods may be developed to control or reduce PM emissions from GDI engines. In this paper, the influence of engine operating parameters was examined for a side-mounted fuel injector configuration in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. The present models are able to reasonably predict the influences of the variables of interest compared to available experimental data or literature. For a late injection strategy, effects of the fuel composition, and spray cone angle were investigated with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Soot Reduction Mechanisms of Post-Injection in Spray Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0794
The application of close-coupled post injections in diesel engines has been proven to be an effective in-cylinder strategy for soot reduction, without much fuel efficiency penalty. But due to the complexity of in-cylinder combustion, the soot reduction mechanism of post-injections is difficult to explain. Accordingly, a simulation study using a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, coupled with the SpeedChem chemistry solver and a semi-detailed soot model, was carried out to investigate post-injection in a constant volume combustion chamber, which is more simple and controllable with respect to the boundary conditions than an engine. A 2-D axisymmetric mesh of radius 2 cm and height 5 cm was used to model the spray. Post-injection durations and initial oxygen concentrations were swept to study the efficacy of post-injection under different combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0843
While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Technical Paper

Highway Fuel Economy Testing of an RCCI Series Hybrid Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0837
In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel. Fuel economy and emissions data were recorded over the specified test cycle and calculated based on the fuel properties and the high-voltage battery energy usage.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional-Modeling-Based Development of a Novel 2-Zone Combustion Chamber Applied to Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0840
A novel 2-zone combustion chamber concept (patent pending) was developed using multi-dimensional modeling. At minimum volume, an axial projection in the piston divides the volume into distinct zones joined by a communication channel. The projection provides a means to control the mixture formation and combustion phasing within each zone. The novel combustion system was applied to reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Results from the study of an 8.8 bar BMEP, 2600 RPM operating condition are presented for the light-duty engine. The results from the heavy-duty engine are at an 18.1 bar BMEP, 1200 RPM operating condition. The effect of several major design features were investigated including the volume split between the inner and outer combustion chamber volumes, the clearance (squish) height, and the top ring land (crevice) volume.
Journal Article

Isobutanol as Both Low Reactivity and High Reactivity Fuels with Addition of Di-Tert Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) in RCCI Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0839
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore the effects of isobutanol as both the high and low reactivity fuels in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion. Three fuel combinations were examined; EEE/diesel, isobutanol/diesel, and isobutanol/isobutanol+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide). In order to assess the relative performance of the fuel combinations of interest under RCCI operation, the engine was operated under conditions representative of typical low temperature combustion (LTC). A net load of 6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was chosen because it provides a wide operable range of equivalence ratios and combustion phasings without excessively high peak pressure rise rates (PPRR). The engine was operated under various intake pressures with global equivalence ratios from 0.28-0.36, and various combustion phasings (defined by 50% mass fraction burned-CA50) from about 1.5 to about 10 deg after top dead center (ATDC).
Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

2014-04-01
2014-01-1320
In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of Low Load Operation in a Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition [GDICI] Engine Using Single-Injection Strategy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1297
The use of gasoline in a compression ignition engine has been a research focus lately due to the ability of gasoline to provide more premixing, resulting in controlled emissions of the nitrogen oxides [NOx] and particulate matter. The present study assesses the reactivity of 93 RON [87AKI] gasoline in a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine, to extend the low load limit. A single injection strategy was used in available experiments where the injection timing was varied from −42 to −9 deg ATDC, with a step-size of 3 deg. The minimum fueling level was defined in the experiments such that the coefficient of variance [COV] of indicated mean effective pressure [IMEP] was less than 3%. The study revealed that injection at −27 deg ATDC allowed a minimum load of 2 bar BMEP. Also, advancement in the start of injection [SOI] timing in the experiments caused an earlier CA50, which became retarded with further advancement in SOI timing.
Journal Article

A Zero-Dimensional Phenomenological Model for RCCI Combustion Using Reaction Kinetics

2014-04-01
2014-01-1074
Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Engine Speed Transient Operation in a Light Duty RCCI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1323
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Journal Article

Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1325
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Equivalence Ratio Effects on Particulate Formation in a Spark-Ignition Engine under Premixed Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1607
3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed to study particulate formation in a Spark-Ignition (SI) engine under premixed conditions. A semi-detailed soot model and a chemical kinetic model, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, were coupled with a spark ignition model and the G equation flame propagation model for SI engine simulations and for predictions of soot mass and particulate number density. The simulation results for in-cylinder pressure and particle size distribution (PSDs) are compared to available experimental studies of equivalence ratio effects during premixed operation. Good predictions are observed with regard to cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and engine load. Qualitative agreements of in-cylinder particle distributions were also obtained and the results are helpful to understand particulate formation processes.
Journal Article

A CFD Study of Post Injection Influences on Soot Formation and Oxidation under Diesel-Like Operating Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-1256
One in-cylinder strategy for reducing soot emissions from diesel engines while maintaining fuel efficiency is the use of close-coupled post injections, which are small fuel injections that follow the main fuel injection after a short delay. While the in-cylinder mechanisms of diesel combustion with single injections have been studied extensively and are relatively well understood, the in-cylinder mechanisms affecting the performance and efficacy of post injections have not been clearly established. Here, experiments from a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical research engine incorporating close- coupled post injections are modeled with three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The overall goal is to complement experimental findings with CFD results to gain more insight into the relationship between post-injections and soot. This paper documents the first stage of CFD results for simulating and analyzing the experimental conditions.
Journal Article

A Surrogate Fuel Formulation Approach for Real Transportation Fuels with Application to Multi-Dimensional Engine Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1464
Real transportation fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, are mixtures of thousands of different hydrocarbons. For multidimensional engine applications, numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included exceeds present computational capabilities. Consequently, surrogate fuel models are normally utilized. A good surrogate fuel model should approximate the essential physical and chemical properties of the real fuel. In this work, we present a novel methodology for the formulation of surrogate fuel models based on local optimization and sensitivity analysis technologies. Within the proposed approach, several important fuel properties are considered. Under the physical properties, we focus on volatility, density, lower heating value (LHV), and viscosity, while the chemical properties relate to the chemical composition, hydrogen to carbon (H/C) ratio, and ignition behavior. An error tolerance is assigned to each property for convergence checking.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOX Emissions by Means of the HCPC Concept: Complying with the Heavy Duty EURO 6 Limits without Aftertreatment System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0093
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
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