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Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0542
Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure with Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0227
In this study both double and triple injection strategies were used with fuel pressures up to 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. Tests were conducted at medium load conditions with cooled, high-pressure EGR at a ratio of 40% and higher. A four-cylinder production engine, featuring double turbochargers with one variable geometry turbocharger, was tested. The double injection strategy consisted of a 20% close-coupled pilot injection while the triple injection strategy introduced a post injection consisting of 10% the total cycle fuel. Results of this study do not indicate an advantage to extreme fuel pressure. The increased air entrainment reduces soot while increasing the premixed burn heat release, mean cylinder temperature, and NOx. Compared to the double injection scheme, triple injections achieved much lower soot for the same EGR rate with only a small NOx penalty.
Technical Paper

Augmentation of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model with Expert Knowledge of Critical Combustion Features for Optimizing a Compression Ignition Engine Using Multiple Injections

2017-03-28
2017-01-0701
The objective of this work was to identify methods of reliably predicting optimum operating conditions in an experimental compression ignition engine using multiple injections. Abstract modeling offered an efficient way to predict large volumes data, when compared with simulation, although the initial cost of constructing such models can be large. This work aims to reduce that initial cost by adding knowledge about the favorable network structures and training rules which are discovered. The data were gathered from a high pressure common rail direct injection turbocharged compression ignition engine utilizing a high EGR configuration. The range of design parameters were relatively large; 100 MPa - 240 MPa for fuel pressure, up to 62% EGR using a modified, long-route, low pressure EGR system, while the pilot timing, main timing, and pilot ratio were free within the safe operating window for the engine.
Technical Paper

Trade-Offs Between Emissions and Efficiency for Multiple Injections of Neat Biodiesel in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Using an Enhanced PSO-GA Optimization Strategy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0630
Particle Swarm and the Genetic Algorithm were coupled to optimize multiple performance metrics for the combustion of neat biodiesel in a turbocharged, four cylinder, John Deere engine operating under constant partial load. The enhanced algorithm was used with five inputs including EGR, injection pressure, and the timing/distribution of fuel between a pilot and main injection. A merit function was defined and used to minimize five output parameters including CO, NOx, PM, HC and fuel consumption simultaneously. The combination of PSO and GA yielded convergence to a Pareto regime without the need for excessive engine runs. Results along the Pareto front illustrate the tradeoff between NOx and particulate matter seen in the literature.
Journal Article

Direct Dual Fuel Stratification, a Path to Combine the Benefits of RCCI and PPC

2015-04-14
2015-01-0856
Control of the timing and magnitude of heat release is one of the biggest challenges for premixed compression ignition, especially when attempting to operate at high load. Single-fuel strategies such as partially premixed combustion (PPC) use direct injection of gasoline to stratify equivalence ratio and retard heat release, thereby reducing pressure rise rate and enabling high load operation. However, retarding the heat release also reduces the maximum work extraction, effectively creating a tradeoff between efficiency and noise. Dual-fuel strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) use premixed gasoline and direct injection of diesel to stratify both equivalence ratio and fuel reactivity, which allows for greater control over the timing and duration of heat release. This enables combustion phasing closer to top dead center (TDC), which is thermodynamically favorable.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Engine Speed Transient Operation in a Light Duty RCCI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1323
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Journal Article

Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1325
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0263
Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel.
Technical Paper

Modeling Evaporating Diesel Sprays Using an Improved Gas Particle Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1598
Accurate modeling of evaporating sprays is critical for diesel engine simulations. The standard spray and evaporation models in KIVA-3V tend to under-predict the vapor penetration, especially at high ambient pressure conditions. A sharp decrease of vapor penetration gradient is observed soon after the liquid spray is completely evaporated due to the lack of momentum sources beyond the liquid spray region. In this study, a gas particle model is implemented in KIVA-3V which tracks the momentum sources resulting from the evaporated spray. Lagrangian tracking of imaginary gas particles is considered until the velocity of the gas particle is comparable to that of the gas phase velocity. The gas particle continuously exchanges momentum with the gas phase and as a result the vapor penetrations are improved. The results using the present gas particle model is compared with experimental data over a wide range of ambient conditions and good levels of agreement are observed in vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI Load Limits and Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0383
The present experimental study explores the effects of compression ratio and piston design in a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOX and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing high thermal efficiencies. The present study consists of RCCI experiments at loads from 4 to 17 bar indicated mean effective pressure at engine speeds of 1,300 and 1,700 [rev/min]. The experiments used a modified piston to examine the effect of piston crevice volume, squish geometry, and compression ratio on performance and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1336
In automotive industry it has been a challenge to retain diesel-like thermal efficiency while maintaining low emissions. Numerous studies have shown significant progress in achieving low emissions through the introduction of common-rail injection systems, multiple injections and exhaust gas recirculation and by using a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, to achieve adequate premixing. On the other hand, low temperature combustion strategies, like HCCI and PCCI, have also shown promising results in terms of reducing both NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. With the increasing capacity of computers, multi-dimensional CFD engine modeling enables a reasonably good prediction of combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions, which is the motivation behind the present research. The current research effort presents an optimization study of light-duty compression ignition engine performance, while meeting the emission regulation targets.
Journal Article

Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

2012-04-16
2012-01-1131
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0379
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate.
Journal Article

Computational Optimization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Engine with Ultra Low Compression Ratio

2011-09-11
2011-24-0015
Many studies have demonstrated ability of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are numerous and range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. Both of the aforementioned techniques have relatively short combustion duration that results in very a rapid rate of heat release, and hence very rapid rates of pressure rise. This has been one of the major challenges for premixed, low temperature combustion at mid and high load. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been introduced recently, which is a dual fuel partially premixed combustion concept.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

2011-04-12
2011-01-1182
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flowfield Non-Uniformities on Emissions Predictions in HSDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0821
The role of the fluid motion in a diesel engine on mixing and combustion was investigated using the CFD code Kiva-3v. The study considered pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion that is a hybrid combustion system characterized by early injection timings and high amounts of EGR dilution to delay the start and lower the temperature of combustion. The fuel oxidizer mixture is not homogeneous at the start of combustion and therefore requires further mixing for complete combustion. PCCI combustion systems are characterized by relatively high CO and UHC emissions. This work investigates attenuating CO emissions by enhancing mixing processes through non-uniform flowfield motions. The fluid motion was characterized by the amount of average angular rotation about the cylindrical axis (swirl ratio) and the amount of non-uniform motion imparted by the relative amounts of mass inducted through tangential and helical intake ports in a 0.5L HSDI diesel engine.
Journal Article

Computational Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Conventional Gasoline

2011-04-12
2011-01-0356
The potential of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies has been demonstrated through countless studies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are just as numerous and they range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. The potential of operating a heavy-duty compression ignition engine fueled with conventional gasoline in a partially premixed combustion mode to have high thermal efficiency and low emissions has been demonstrated in this study. The objective of this work was to optimize the engine using computational tools. The KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code, a multi-dimensional engine CFD model was coupled to a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II), which is a multi-objective genetic algorithm.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of HCPC Turbocharged Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2107
Homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is triggered by spontaneous ignition in dilute homogeneous mixtures. The combustion rate must be reduced by suitable solutions such as high rates of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and/or lean mixtures. HCCI is considered a very effective way to reduce engine pollutant emissions, however only a few HCCI engines have entered into production. HCCI combustion currently cannot be extended to the whole engine operating range, especially to high loads, since the use of EGR displaces air from the cylinder, limiting engine mean effective pressure, thus the engine must be able to operate also in conventional mode. This paper concerns an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. This new combustion concept is called Homogenous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). HCPC is based on split-cycle principle.
Journal Article

Clean Diesel Combustion by Means of the HCPC Concept

2010-04-12
2010-01-1256
Homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is triggered by spontaneous ignition in dilute homogeneous mixtures. The combustion rate must be reduced by suitable solutions such as high rates of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and/or lean mixtures. HCCI is considered a very effective way to reduce engine pollutant emissions, however only a few HCCI engines have entered into production. HCCI combustion currently cannot be extended to the whole engine operating range, especially to high loads, since the use of EGR displaces air from the cylinder, limiting engine mean effective pressure, thus the engine must be able to operate also in conventional mode. This paper concerns a study of an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. The concept consists in forming a pre-compressed homogeneous charge outside the cylinder and gradually admitting it into the cylinder during the combustion process.
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