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Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1696
In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl.
Journal Article

Direct Dual Fuel Stratification, a Path to Combine the Benefits of RCCI and PPC

2015-04-14
2015-01-0856
Control of the timing and magnitude of heat release is one of the biggest challenges for premixed compression ignition, especially when attempting to operate at high load. Single-fuel strategies such as partially premixed combustion (PPC) use direct injection of gasoline to stratify equivalence ratio and retard heat release, thereby reducing pressure rise rate and enabling high load operation. However, retarding the heat release also reduces the maximum work extraction, effectively creating a tradeoff between efficiency and noise. Dual-fuel strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) use premixed gasoline and direct injection of diesel to stratify both equivalence ratio and fuel reactivity, which allows for greater control over the timing and duration of heat release. This enables combustion phasing closer to top dead center (TDC), which is thermodynamically favorable.
Technical Paper

Extension of the Lower Load Limit of Gasoline Compression Ignition with 87 AKI Gasoline by Injection Timing and Pressure

2014-04-01
2014-01-1302
Previous work has demonstrated the capabilities of gasoline compression ignition to achieve engine loads as high as 19.5 bar BMEP with a production multi-cylinder diesel engine using gasoline with an anti-knock index (AKI) of 87. In the current study, the low load limit of the engine was investigated using the same engine hardware configurations and 87 AKI fuel that was used to achieve 19.5 bar BMEP. Single injection, “minimum fueling” style injection timing and injection pressure sweeps (where fuel injection quantity was reduced at each engine operating condition until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure rose to 3%) found that the 87 AKI test fuel could run under stable combustion conditions down to a load of 1.5 bar BMEP at an injection timing of −30 degrees after top dead center (°aTDC) with reduced injection pressure, but still without the use of intake air heating or uncooled EGR.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Engine Speed Transient Operation in a Light Duty RCCI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1323
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions using a high-bandwidth, transient capable engine test cell. Transient RCCI and CDC combustion and emissions results are compared over an up-speed change from 1,000 to 2,000 rev/min. and a down-speed change from 2,000 to 1,000 rev/min. at a constant 2.0 bar BMEP load. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending with port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Journal Article

Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1325
The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5°CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition.
Journal Article

Modeling the Ignitability of a Pilot Injection for a Diesel Primary Reference Fuel: Impact of Injection Pressure, Ambient Temperature and Injected Mass

2014-04-01
2014-01-1258
In this paper, we studied the accuracy of computational modeling of the ignition of a pilot injectionin the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) light-duty optical engine facility, using the physical properties of a cetane/iso-cetane Diesel Primary Reference Fuel (DPRF) mixture and the reaction kinetics of a well-validated mechanism for primary reference fuels. Local fuel-air equivalence ratio measurements from fuel tracer based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments were used to compare the mixture formation predictions with KIVA-ERC-based simulations. The effects of variations in injection mass from 1 mg to 4 mg, in-cylinder swirl ratio, and near-TDC temperatures on non-combusting mixture preparation were analyzed, to assess the accuracy of the model in capturing average jet behavior, despite its inability to model the non-negligible jet-by-jet variations seen in the experiments.
Journal Article

Effects of Biofuel Blends on RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty, Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1653
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over a wide number of operating points representing vehicle operation over the US EPA FTP test. Similarly, previous RCCI engine experiments have used petroleum based fuels such as ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and gasoline, with some work done using high percentages of biofuels, namely E85 [7]. The current study was conducted to examine RCCI performance with moderate biofuel blends, such as E20 and B20, as compared to conventional gasoline and ULSD.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Pressure Oscillation Modes and Audible Noise in RCCI, HCCI, and CDC

2013-04-08
2013-01-1652
This study uses Fourier analysis to investigate the relationship between the heat release event and the frequency composition of pressure oscillations in a variety of combustion modes. While kinetically-controlled combustion strategies such as HCCI and RCCI offer advantages over CDC in terms of efficiency and NOX emissions, their operational range is limited by audible knock and the possibility of engine damage stemming from high pressure rise rates and oscillations. Several criteria such as peak pressure rise rate, ringing intensity, and various knock indices have been developed to quantify these effects, but they fail to capture all of the dynamics required to form direct comparisons between different engines or combustion strategies. Experiments were performed with RCCI, HCCI, and CDC on a 2.44 L heavy-duty engine at 1300 RPM, generating a significant diversity of heat release profiles.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0263
Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel.
Technical Paper

RCCI Engine Operation Towards 60% Thermal Efficiency

2013-04-08
2013-01-0279
The present experimental study explored methods to obtain the maximum practical cycle efficiency with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI). The study used both zero-dimensional computational cycle simulations and engine experiments. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder heavy-duty research diesel engine adapted for dual fuel operation, with and without piston oil gallery cooling. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOx and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing gross indicated thermal efficiencies in excess of 56%. The present study considered RCCI operation at a fixed load condition of 6.5 bar IMEP an engine speed of 1,300 [r/min]. The experiments used a piston with a flat profile with 18.7:1 compression ratio.
Journal Article

Effect of Cetane Improvers on Gasoline, Ethanol, and Methanol Reactivity and the Implications for RCCI Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1678
The focus of the present study was to characterize the fuel reactivity of high octane number fuels (i.e., low fuel reactivity), namely gasoline, ethanol, and methanol when mixed with cetane improvers under lean, premixed combustion conditions. Two commercially available cetane improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and di-tert-butyl peroxide, were used in the study. First, blends of the primary reference fuels iso-octane and n-heptane were port injected under fixed operating conditions. The resulting combustion phasings were used to generate effective PRF number maps. Then, blends of the aforementioned base fuels and cetane improvers were tested under the same lean premixed conditions as the PRF blends. Based on the combustion phasing results of the base fuel and cetane improver mixture, the effective PRF number, or octane number, could be determined.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Sparse Analytical Jacobian Chemistry Solver for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Simulations with Comprehensive Reaction Mechanisms

2012-09-24
2012-01-1974
The paper presents the development of a novel approach to the solution of detailed chemistry in internal combustion engine simulations, which relies on the analytical computation of the ordinary differential equations (ODE) system Jacobian matrix in sparse form. Arbitrary reaction behaviors in either Arrhenius, third-body or fall-off formulations can be considered, and thermodynamic gas-phase mixture properties are evaluated according to the well-established 7-coefficient JANAF polynomial form. The current work presents a full validation of the new chemistry solver when coupled to the KIVA-4 code, through modeling of a single cylinder Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty engine, running in two-stage combustion mode.
Journal Article

Gasoline DICI Engine Operation in the LTC Regime Using Triple- Pulse Injection

2012-04-16
2012-01-1131
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline injected using a triple-pulse strategy in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. This work aims to extend the operation ranges for a light-duty diesel engine, operating on gasoline, that have been identified in previous work via extended controllability of the injection process. The single-cylinder engine (SCE) was operated at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min) and computational simulations of the in-cylinder processes were performed using a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion chosen to match ignition characteristics of the gasoline fuel used for the SCE experiments.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0379
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI Load Limits and Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0383
The present experimental study explores the effects of compression ratio and piston design in a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOX and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing high thermal efficiencies. The present study consists of RCCI experiments at loads from 4 to 17 bar indicated mean effective pressure at engine speeds of 1,300 and 1,700 [rev/min]. The experiments used a modified piston to examine the effect of piston crevice volume, squish geometry, and compression ratio on performance and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1336
In automotive industry it has been a challenge to retain diesel-like thermal efficiency while maintaining low emissions. Numerous studies have shown significant progress in achieving low emissions through the introduction of common-rail injection systems, multiple injections and exhaust gas recirculation and by using a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, to achieve adequate premixing. On the other hand, low temperature combustion strategies, like HCCI and PCCI, have also shown promising results in terms of reducing both NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. With the increasing capacity of computers, multi-dimensional CFD engine modeling enables a reasonably good prediction of combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions, which is the motivation behind the present research. The current research effort presents an optimization study of light-duty compression ignition engine performance, while meeting the emission regulation targets.
Technical Paper

Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Using a Cetane Improver

2012-04-16
2012-01-1110
Premixed compression ignition (PCI) strategies offer the potential for simultaneously low NOx and soot emissions and diesel-like efficiency. However, these strategies are generally confined to low loads due to difficulties controlling the combustion phasing and heat release rate. Recent experiments have demonstrated that dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion can improve PCI combustion control and expand the PCI load range. Previous studies have explored RCCI operation using port-fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. In this study, experiments are performed using a light-duty, single-cylinder research engine to investigate RCCI combustion using a single fuel with the addition of a cetane improver 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The fuel delivery strategy consists of port-fuel injection of E10 (i.e., 10% ethanol in gasoline) and direct-injection of E10 mixed with 3% EHN.
Journal Article

Computational Optimization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition in a Heavy-Duty Engine with Ultra Low Compression Ratio

2011-09-11
2011-24-0015
Many studies have demonstrated ability of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are numerous and range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. Both of the aforementioned techniques have relatively short combustion duration that results in very a rapid rate of heat release, and hence very rapid rates of pressure rise. This has been one of the major challenges for premixed, low temperature combustion at mid and high load. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been introduced recently, which is a dual fuel partially premixed combustion concept.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

2011-04-12
2011-01-1182
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.
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