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Technical Paper

Evaluating Surface Film Models for Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Spray-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0209
Surface film formation is an important phenomenon during spray impingement in a combustion chamber. The film that forms on the chamber walls and piston bowl produces soot post-combustion. While some droplets stick to the wall surface, others splash and interact with the gas present inside the combustion chamber. Accurate prediction of both the film thickness and splashed mass is crucial for surface film model development since it leads to a precise estimation of the amount of soot and other exhaust gases formed. This information could guide future studies aimed at a comprehensive understanding of the combustion process and might enable development of engines with reduced emissions. Dynamic structure Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model implemented for in-cylinder sprays [1] has shown to predict the flow structure of a spray more accurately than the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Journal Article

Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion Effects in Direct Injection Diesel and Gasoline Sprays

2019-04-02
2019-01-0285
In most large-eddy simulation (LES) applications to two-phase engine flows, the liquid-air interactions need to be accounted for as source terms in the respective governing equations. Accurate calculation of these source terms requires the relative velocity “seen” by liquid droplets as they move across the flow, which generally needs to be estimated using a turbulent dispersion model. Turbulent dispersion modeling in LES is very scarce in the literature. In most studies on engine spray flows, sub-grid scale (SGS) models for the turbulent dispersion still follow the same stochastic approach originally proposed for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS). In this study, an SGS dispersion model is formulated in which the instantaneous gas velocity is decomposed into a deterministic part and a stochastic part. The deterministic part is reconstructed using the approximate deconvolution method (ADM), in which the large-scale flow can be readily calculated.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-0256
Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines Based on Swept-Volume Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-0188
A swept-volume method of calculating the volume swept by the flame during each time step is developed and used to improve the calculation of fuel reaction rates. The improved reaction rates have been applied to the ignition model and coupled with the level set G-equation combustion model. In the ignition model, a single initial kernel is formed after which the kernel is convected by the gas flow and its growth rate is determined by the flame speed and thermal expansion due to the energy transfer from the electrical circuit. The predicted ignition kernel size was compared with the available experimental data and good agreements were achieved. Once the ignition kernel reaches a size when the fully turbulent flame is developed, the G-equation model is switched on to track the mean turbulent flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Direct Injection Diesel and Gasoline Spray Simulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0836
In this paper, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with two uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods, namely latin-hypercube sampling (LHS) and polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), have been used to quantify the effects of model parameters and spray boundary conditions on diesel and gasoline spray simulations. Evaporating, non-reacting spray data was used to compare penetration, mixture fraction and spray probability contour. Two different sets of four uncertain variables were used for diesel and gasoline sprays, respectively. UQ results showed good agreement between experiments and predictions. UQ statistics indicated that discharge coefficient has stronger impact on gasoline than diesel sprays, and spray cone angle is important for vapor penetration of both types of sprays. Additionally, examination of the gasoline spray characteristics showed that plume-to-plume interaction and nozzle dribble are important phenomena that need to be considered in high-fidelity gasoline spray simulations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Controllability of Natural Gas and Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0756
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its rich reserves and low price, as well as good physical and chemical properties. Its low carbon structure and high octane number are beneficial for CO2 reduction and knock mitigation, respectively. Diesel and natural gas dual fuel combustion is a viable pathway to utilize natural gas in diesel engines. To achieve high efficiency and low emission combustion in a practical diesel engine over a wide range of operating conditions, understanding the performance responses to engine system parameter variations is needed. The controllability of two combustion strategies, diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and single injection reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), were evaluated using the multi-dimension CFD simulation in this paper.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Preparation, Fuel Stratification, and Premixed Fuel Chemistry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0773
Engine experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine to explore the effects of charge preparation, fuel stratification, and premixed fuel chemistry on the performance and emissions of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The experiments were conducted at a fixed total fuel energy and engine speed, and charge preparation was varied by adjusting the global equivalence ratio between 0.28 and 0.35 at intake temperatures of 40°C and 60°C. With a premixed injection of isooctane (PRF100), and a single direct-injection of n-heptane (PRF0), fuel stratification was varied with start of injection (SOI) timing. Combustion phasing advanced as SOI was retarded between -140° and -35°, then retarded as injection timing was further retarded, indicating a potential shift in combustion regime. Peak gross efficiency was achieved between -60° and -45° SOI, and NOx emissions increased as SOI was retarded beyond -40°, peaking around -25° SOI.
Journal Article

Guidelines for Interpreting Soot Luminosity Imaging

2017-03-28
2017-01-0716
One way to develop an understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes that occur during direct injection and combustion in an internal combustion engine is to image the natural luminosity from soot over time. Imaging is possible when there is optical access to the combustion chamber. After the images are acquired, the next challenge is to properly interpret the luminous distributions that have been captured on the images. A major focus of this paper is to provide guidance on interpretation of experimental images of soot luminosity by explaining how radiation from soot is predicted to change as it is transmitted through the combustion chamber and to the imaging. The interpretations are only limited by the scope of the models that have been developed for this purpose. The end-goal of imaging radiation from soot is to estimate the amount of soot that is present.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

2017-03-28
2017-01-0561
In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
Journal Article

An Efficient Level-Set Flame Propagation Model for Hybrid Unstructured Grids Using the G-Equation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0582
Computational fluid dynamics of gas-fueled large-bore spark ignition engines with pre-chamber ignition can speed up the design process of these engines provided that 1) the reliability of the results is not affected by poor meshing and 2) the time cost of the meshing process does not negatively compensate for the advantages of running a computer simulation. In this work a flame propagation model that runs with arbitrary hybrid meshes was developed and coupled with the KIVA4-MHI CFD solver, in order to address these aims. The solver follows the G-Equation level-set method for turbulent flame propagation by Tan and Reitz, and employs improved numerics to handle meshes featuring different cell types such as hexahedra, tetrahedra, square pyramids and triangular prisms. Detailed reaction kinetics from the SpeedCHEM solver are used to compute the non-equilibrium composition evolution downstream and upstream of the flame surface, where chemical equilibrium is instead assumed.
Journal Article

Effects of Numerical Schemes on Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Planar Gas Jet and Diesel Spray

2016-04-05
2016-01-0866
Three time integration schemes and four finite volume interpolation schemes for the convection term in momentum equation were tested under turbulent planar gas jet and Sandia non-reacting vaporizing Spray-H cases. The three time integration schemes are the first-order Euler implicit scheme, the second-order backward scheme, and the second-order Crank-Nicolson scheme. The four spatial interpolation schemes are cubic central, linear central, upwind, and vanLeer schemes. Velocity magnitude contour, centerline and radial mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles for the planar turbulent gas jet case, and fuel vapor contour and liquid and vapor penetrations for the Diesel spray case predicted by the different numerical schemes were compared. The sensitivity of the numerical schemes to mesh resolution was also investigated. The non-viscosity based dynamic structure subgrid model was used. The numerical tool used in this study was OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the RCCI Combustion Processes Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, n-Butanol and Diesel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0777
In the current, numerical study RCCI combustion and emission characteristics using various fuel strategies are investigated, including methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and gasoline as the low reactivity fuel, and diesel fuel as the high reactivity fuel. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-alcohol chemical kinetic mechanism was coupled with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict RCCI combustion under various operating conditions. The results show that a higher quantity of diesel was required to maintain the same combustion phasing with alcohol-diesel fuel blends, and the combustion durations and pressure rise rates of methanol-diesel (MD) and ethanol-diesel (ED) cases were much shorter and higher than those of gasoline-diesel (GD) and n-butanol-diesel (nBD) cases. The simulations also investigated the sensitivities of the direct injection strategies, intake temperature and premixed fuel ratio on RCCI combustion phasing control.
Journal Article

Exploring the Role of Reactivity Gradients in Direct Dual Fuel Stratification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0774
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies have been an active area of research due to their ability to achieve high thermal efficiency while avoiding the formation of NOx and particulate matter. One of the largest challenges with LTC is the relative lack of authority over the heat release rate profile, which, depending on the particular injection strategy, either limits the maximum attainable load, or creates a tradeoff between noise and efficiency at high load conditions. We have shown previously that control over heat release can be dramatically improved through a combination of reactivity stratification in the premixed charge and a diffusion-limited injection that occurs after the conclusion of the low-temperature heat release, in a strategy called direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS).
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional-Modeling-Based Development of a Novel 2-Zone Combustion Chamber Applied to Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-0840
A novel 2-zone combustion chamber concept (patent pending) was developed using multi-dimensional modeling. At minimum volume, an axial projection in the piston divides the volume into distinct zones joined by a communication channel. The projection provides a means to control the mixture formation and combustion phasing within each zone. The novel combustion system was applied to reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion in both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Results from the study of an 8.8 bar BMEP, 2600 RPM operating condition are presented for the light-duty engine. The results from the heavy-duty engine are at an 18.1 bar BMEP, 1200 RPM operating condition. The effect of several major design features were investigated including the volume split between the inner and outer combustion chamber volumes, the clearance (squish) height, and the top ring land (crevice) volume.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Variable Valve Actuation, Cylinder Deactivation and Injection Strategies for Low-Load RCCI Operation of a Light Duty Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0843
While Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) exhibit high thermal efficiency and produce low NOx and soot emissions, low load operation is still a significant challenge due to high unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, which occur as a result of poor combustion efficiencies at these operating points. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperatures are insufficient to light-off the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), thereby resulting in poor UHC and CO conversion efficiencies by the aftertreatment system. To achieve exhaust gas temperature values sufficient for DOC light-off, combustion can be appropriately phased by changing the ratio of gasoline to diesel in the cylinder, or by burning additional fuel injected during the expansion stroke through post-injection.
Journal Article

A Zero-Dimensional Phenomenological Model for RCCI Combustion Using Reaction Kinetics

2014-04-01
2014-01-1074
Homogeneous low temperature combustion is believed to be a promising approach to resolve the conflict of goals between high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Disadvantageously for this kind of combustion, the whole process depends on chemical kinetics and thus is hard to control. Reactivity controlled combustion can help to overcome this difficulty. In the so-called RCCI (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion concept a small amount of pilot diesel that is injected directly into the combustion chamber ignites a highly diluted gasoline-air mixture. As the gasoline does not ignite without the diesel, the pilot injection timing and the ratio between diesel and gasoline can be used to control the combustion process. A phenomenological multi-zone model to predict RCCI combustion has been developed and validated against experimental and 3D-CFD data. The model captures the main physics governing ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

Modeling Investigation of Auto-ignition and Engine Knock by HO2

2014-04-01
2014-01-1221
Knock in a Rotax-914 engine was modeled and investigated using an improved version of the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model, together with a reduced chemical kinetics model. The ERC-PRF mechanism with 47 species and 132 reactions [1] was adopted to model the end gas auto-ignition in front of the flame front. The model was validated by a Caterpillar SI engine and a Rotax-914 engine in different operating conditions. The simulation results agree well with available experimental results. A new engineering quantified knock criterion based on chemical mechanism was then proposed. Hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) shows obvious accumulation before auto-ignition and a sudden decrease after auto-ignition. These properties are considered to be a good capability for HO2 to investigate engine knock problems.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Potential of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition for the Analysis of Combustion CCV and Knock Tendency in a High Performance Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0031
The paper reports the application of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to LES calculations for the analysis of combustion and knock tendency in a highly downsized turbocharged GDI engine that is currently under production. In order to qualitatively match the cyclic variability of the combustion process, Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the closed-valve portion of the cycle is used with cycle-dependent initial conditions from a previous multi-cycle analysis [1, 2, 3]. Detailed chemical modelling of fuel's auto-ignition quality is considered through an ad-hoc implemented look-up table approach, as a trade-off between the need for a reasonable representation of the chemistry and that of limiting the computational cost of the LES simulations. Experimental tests were conducted operating the engine at knock-limited spark advance (KLSA) and the proposed knock model was previously validated for such engine setup [3].
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