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Technical Paper

Advanced Exhaust Gas Thermal Management for Lowest Tailpipe Emissions - Combining Low Emission Engine and Electrically Heated Catalyst

Further advancements in engine development lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced CO₂ emission. Such low emission engine concepts require most advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for lowest possible tailpipe emissions. On the other hand, the exhaust gas purification by catalytic measures experiences more and more challenges due to constantly reduced exhaust gas temperatures by more efficient engines. These challenges can be overcome by traditional catalyst heating strategies, which are known to increase fuel consumption and emissions. Alternatively, electrically heated catalysts ("EHC") can be utilized to provide a very efficient method to increase gas temperatures directly in the exhaust catalyst. This way the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Durability Test for Metallic Substrates Tailored for Motorcycle Application

Future emission legislation for 2 and 3 wheelers in EU and many other Countries will introduce durability of pollution control devices. Along with a durable coating technology, the mechanical durability of the substrate must be ensured to guarantee the requested conversion efficiency for the entire life of the motorcycle. A traditional approach consisting in engine bench and vehicle testing is no more competitive considering the very short time to market needed in the motorcycle market and the relevant cost related to this kind of tests. For this reason a new time and cost efficient accelerated component durability test was developed, which can account for the combined effects of critical load at a metallic catalytic converter. This paper shows the methodology used to determine the critical stressors and their levels in real operating conditions by measuring and analyzing a broad range of vehicle test information.
Technical Paper

Innovative 2 Wheeler Substrate Developments for EU5

Future tighter emission limits for 2 wheelers in Europe and worldwide will require a completely new approach in catalyst system design. In particular, the EU5 scenario, probably with the same emission limits as 4 wheelers and, for the first time, emission durability requirements, needs a new strategy to combine higher and durable conversion efficiency with the classical characteristics of 2 wheeler systems: low cost, low weight with minimum impact on exhaust system layout and engine out performances such as low fuel consumption and good power output. This paper deals with the investigation of innovative metallic substrates keeping constant, as a first step towards the development of an EU5 system, both washcoat technology and PGM loading. In particular the effect of turbulent structures in the substrate, using PE (Perforated Foils) and LS (Longitudinal Structure) have been thoroughly investigated in testing 400cpsi PE and LS substrates.
Technical Paper

Pre-Turbocharger-Catalyst - Catalytic Performances on an Euro V Type Diesel Engine and Robust Design Development

Future emission legislation and new diesel engine technology tighten the requirements for modern diesel vehicle exhaust after-treatment systems. In particular, the oxidation catalyst system requires more efficiency to treat increasing raw emissions of HC and CO at low exhaust gas temperatures resulting from advanced combustion processes. This represents a big challenge for all developers today where the cost of raw materials continues to rise. Splitting the oxidation catalyst volume into two parts and mounting a very small part in front of a turbocharger on Euro III or Euro IV Diesel engines has been proved very efficient: Light off and maximum pollutant conversion rates were improved. New results gained with Pre Turbocharger Catalyst (PTC) on a Euro V type diesel engine are confirming previous observations. The complete after-treatment system of today's vehicles should be designed and developed for the whole life of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre Turbo Catalyst Design on Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions and Fuel Economy

This paper gives a thorough review of the HC/CO emissions challenge and discusses the effects of different diesel oxidation catalyst designs in a pre turbine and post turbine position on steady state and transient turbo charger performance as well as on HC and CO tailpipe emissions, fuel economy and performance of modern Diesel engines. Results from engine dynamometer testing are presented. Both classical diffusive and advanced premixed Diesel combustion modes are investigated to understand the various effects of possible future engine calibration strategies.
Technical Paper

Pre-Turbocharger Catalyst - Fast catalyst light-off evaluation

Further tightened emission legislation and new engine technologies increase the requirements for the exhaust after-treatment system of modern diesel passenger cars. Especially the increasing raw emissions of HC and CO as well as the low temperature of the exhaust gas for a long period during cold start of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) require additional efforts in the design of the oxidation catalyst system [1]. A highly efficient micro catalyst, which is mounted in front of a turbocharger, can help to treat efficiently these high HC and CO emissions. Due to the higher temperature level in front of the turbine and the significantly increased mass and heat transfer by turbulent flow, efficiency especially during cold start is highly increased. However the packaging constraints are more critical in this area due to heat considerations and also to maintain engine performance.
Technical Paper

Metal Supported Particulate Matter-Cat, A Low Impact and Cost Effective Solution for a 1.3 Euro IV Diesel Engine

Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection, EGR and optimized combustion technology have been proven to reduce dramatically engine raw emissions both in terms of Nox and Particulate Matter. As a matter of fact the recently introduced FIAT 1.3 JTD 4 Cylinder Engine achieves Euro 4 limits with aid of conventional 2-way oxidation catalyst. Nevertheless some special applications, such as platforms with relatively higher gross vehicle weight possibly yield to PM-related issues. The present paper deals with the development program carried out to design a cost effective aftertreatment solution in order to address particulate matter tailpipe emissions. The major constraint of this development program was the extremely challenging packaging conditions and the absolute demand to avoid any major impact on the system design. The flow-through metal supported PM Filter Catalyst has been extensively tested on the specific vehicle application with aid of roller bench setup.
Technical Paper

Application of metal-supported catalysts for diesel engines

Nearly all real diesel engines operations are leading to low exhaust temperatures. Standard catalyst technique remains therefore for significant time below light-off. To improve the conversion behavior two approaches were made: placement of tailor-fitted catalysts as close as possible to the engine exhaust port before turbocharger and usage of close coupled catalysts with the so-called hybrid design. Both measures are providing visible progress in reducing diesel engine emissions. Tests were made with modern diesel engines both for passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Catalyst Substrate Application for Diesel Engines

Nearly all real Diesel engine operation is leading to low exhaust temperatures. Standard catalyst technique remains therefore for significant time below light off. To improve the conversion behavior two approaches were made: placement of tailor fitted catalysts as close as possible to the engine exhaust port before turbocharger and usage of close coupled catalysts with the so-called hybrid design. Both measures are providing visible progress in reducing Diesel engine emissions. Tests were made with modern Diesel engines both for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Modern Application Strategies for Catalytic Aftertreatment Demonstrated on a Production V6 Engine

A study was performed to develop optimum design strategies for a production V6 engine to maximize catalyst performance at minimum pressure loss and at minimum cost. Test results for an advanced system, designed to meet future emission limits on a production V6 vehicle, are presented based on FTP testing. The on-line pressure loss and temperature data serves to explain the functioning of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Application Guideline to Define Catalyst Layout for Maximum Catalytic Efficiency

The influence of physical parameters of the catalyst's substrate such as thermal mass, hydraulic diameter and geometric surface area on catalyst's efficiency is well known as published in numerous works. This paper will show interactions of these parameters and will provide a guideline on how to design the optimum system for a specific application, taking into account system's back pressure and system costs. Based on engine test bench results that show the influence of the physical parameters, the results for the optimized design regarding emission tests and maximum conversion rate at higher loads will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology for Metallic Substrates: A Closed Cycle

Emissions during the useage phase of vehicles are of increasing interest in environmental protection, and consequently, there is considerable interest in exhaust systems. The automotive exhaust system including the catalytic converter is, because of the precious metals in the catalyst, of particular interest for the recycling of automotive parts. The paper will describe the recycling technology of ceramic and metal catalyst substrates. The process will be analyzed in detail with the example of metal supports. As a result the complete life cycle and the recycling efficiency are presented.