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Journal Article

Experiences with Experimental Determination of the Yield Locus and its Evolution for Advanced High Strength Steels

Accurate description of the plastic yield locus is important for accurate prediction of sheet metal formability and springback using FEM. This paper presents experimental results obtained for the initial plastic yield locus and its evolution for some selected Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). A review of available experimental methods was conducted to select appropriate techniques for testing. For loading in tension-shear, the Arcan test was selected, however because of lack of uniformity of the stress distribution, the test was not included in the final series of tests. Shear testing, uniaxial tensile testing, plane strain testing and stacked compression testing were used to determine the yield locus. From the test results and analysis for the selected AHSS, it seems that the onset of initial yielding and its isotropic evolution to 4% plastic strain is best described by the von Mises yield function.
Journal Article

Comparison of Forming Limit Curves for Advanced High Strength Steels Using Different Techniques

Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) have been used in press shops for decades during die development and more recently as failure criteria when used in conjunction with FEA for part feasibility analysis. Around the world there are different techniques used to determine the FLC. The differences between the techniques lie in tooling, specimen geometry and in the method used to determine the critical strains. A comprehensive study on FLCs of selected AHSS was carried out at ArcelorMittal Global R&D, where the different commonly used techniques and a new technique employing Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were employed to determine the FLCs. This paper presents results of these comparisons.
Technical Paper

Contact Pressure Distribution for Flow of Metal through Drawbeads

To aid in understanding die wear when stamping AHSS, a study to characterize the contact pressure distribution in drawbeads during stamping had been undertaken. As direct measurement of contact pressure for a drawbead is not feasible during metal flow, a combination of experimental and Finite Element (FE) simulation techniques were used to determine the contact pressure distributions and the maximum contact pressure for a number of different conditions. Testing was conducted using the Drawbead Simulator (DBS) for two different bead configurations. The materials in this investigation were 0.7mm and 0.8mm EG BH210 and EG DP500. Static Implicit FE analyses were conducted with ABAQUS Standard using 2D plane strain continuum elements. A combined hardening model in conjunction with strain rate effects was used to describe material behavior as it flows through the drawbeads.
Technical Paper

Sheared Edge Characterization of Steel Products used for Closure Panel Applications

Application of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) to closure and structural parts in the automotive industry is increasing in future models. In addition to weight reduction, the other primary motivation to consider these products is the improvement of structural performance that is needed to meet future stringent safety standards. AHSS products have a combination of unique microstructures and mechanical behavior. It is important to develop basic knowledge and understanding of all the manufacturing aspects of forming these products, so that robust forming processes can be engineered to successfully form parts in a production environment. The edge condition obtained after post-draw operations such as trimming has a significant influence on processes such as stretch flanging. A study to investigate the influence of punching clearance on the edge characteristics of various AHSS products has been initiated at Mittal Steel R&D.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Press Formability of Advanced High Strength Steels Using Laboratory Tests

To further the application of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. As a first step towards accomplishing this goal, the American Iron and Steel Institute, in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy, jointly funded under the Technology Roadmap Program, a study by Ispat Inland Research Laboratories to characterize the formability of AHSS using simulative laboratory tests. Splitting limits under different conditions and springback behavior of several grades of conventional high strength steels (HSS) such as bake-hardenable and HSLA steels, advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase and TRIP steels, and ultra-high strength steels (UHSS) such as recovery-annealed and tempered martensitic steels were characterized.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Emission Control in C.I.Engines Using Shrouded Inlet Valve

In today's modern world the internal combustion engine has a predominant role in stationary low power generation and a virtual monopoly in mobile applications. Concentrations emitted from the internal combustion engines thus build up to levels sufficient to have adverse effects on plants and animals. In Compression Ignition (CI) Engines turbulence of the charge plays a vital role in combustion process. The generation of suction swirl using a shrouded inlet valve is one way to achieve the desired level of turbulence. The shrouded inlet valve is capable of modifying the droplet size distribution of the fuel spray as well as producing a more ignitable and burnable mixture, which contributes to the reduction in the NOx content in the exhaust. The experimental part of the paper involves the fabrication of shrouded valves of different length of shroud. Load test and emission tests were carried out on a stationary four stroke C.I.Engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Dual-Phase Steels for Automotive Closure Panels

With interest in improving vehicle quality and customer satisfaction, Ford Motor Company initiated an effort aimed at improving dent resistance of closure panels. An investigation of various means of product improvement led to the recognition of dual phase steels, due to their inherent formability and strain hardening attributes, as the most appropriate steel panel for outer panel applications. Ispat Inland's new Electro-galvanized dual phase steel DI-FORM 500 (henceforth referred to by the generic designation, DP500), which meets 500 MPa minimum tensile strength, was specifically designed to meet automotive exposed quality standards. This paper compares the dent resistance performance of automotive door assemblies manufactured with both Bake Hardenable 210 (BH210) and DP500 door outer panels. Results indicate the achievement of significantly improved outer panel dent resistance through the use of the DP500 product.
Technical Paper

A New Dual Phase Steel for Automotive Body Panels

In an effort to optimize outer body panel steel utilization with respect to dent resistance performance and weight reduction, the automotive industry continues to investigate the application of higher strength steels. Most recently, dual phase steel has been recognized as a very promising material substrate for outer body panel application, due to its inherent formability and final part performance attributes. This paper presents a comprehensive study of Ispat Inland's new electrogalvanized dual phase “DI-FORM 500” product, which was specifically designed to meet automotive exposed quality standards. It reviews the mechanical properties, aging characteristics, formability, dent resistance, weldability and fatigue strength of this product, along with a representation of its application advantages to the automotive industry, in terms of part performance, weight savings and cost avoidance.
Technical Paper

Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

Bending under tension is an important deformation mode during stamping and has been observed to limit achievable ductility for high strength steels. This paper presents experimental results from Angular Stretch Bend (ASB) testing, which has been used to characterize bending under tension behavior for several conventional, advanced high strength steels and ultra-high strength steels. Steels that were studied include Bake Hardenable steels, High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels, Dual Phase (DP) steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels, and tempered martensitic steels. Failure heights were determined under sample lockout conditions for different punch radii. By comparing absolute formability measured by the failure height, the results can be used to provide material formability ranking for different R/t ratios. In addition, strain distributions were analyzed to provide bending under tension forming limits for the different steel grades.
Technical Paper

Material and Design Factors Influencing the Quasi-Static Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

The quasi-static denting behavior of sheet steels has been analyzed in a systematic FEA study, which considers material properties, panel radius, sheet thickness, panel length and boundary conditions. Results from a full factorial experimental matrix have been analyzed statistically to identify those variables and variable interactions that influence dent performance. The primary factors which control dent performance are material properties, panel radius and sheet thickness, while panel length and boundary conditions are not significant. Based on the results of this study, two commonly used dent criteria (loading energy and visible dent load) are analyzed, and previously reported opposite effects of radius of curvature on dent performance are clarified.