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Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Dimethyl Ether(DME) Flow in Diesel Nozzle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0081
Dimethyl ether (DME) holds promise as an alternative to diesel fuel. However, its physical properties are not similar to those of conventional diesel fuel. The P-V, bulk modulus and viscosity of DME are derived as a function of temperature and pressure. As a result, the Weber and Reynolds number of DME is very large as compared with that of diesel fuel. So, the spray characteristics of DME are not those of a liquid spray but similar to those of gas spray. The spray formation is strongly affected by the fuel flow in the nozzle. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experiments are examined to analyze the fuel flow in the nozzle. The DME physical properties make some difference to the flow in the nozzle, in comparison with those of diesel. As a CFD result, cavitation in the injection nozzle is more frequent with DME than with diesel oil. From experimental results, the temperature in the nozzle sac is higher with DME than with diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Spray Formation and Combustion in Diesel Engines Operated with Dimethyl Ether

2003-05-19
2003-01-1925
Characteristics of dimethyl ether spray formation were observed using schlieren photography, and the combustion characteristics and performance of a dimethyl ether-operated diesel engine were investigated. Accordingly, this paper describes the basic characteristics of engine performance and the potential for decreased exhaust emissions, as well as discussing problems concerning the practical application of dimethyl ether-operated diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low Critical Fuel Flow in Nozzle

2003-05-19
2003-01-1928
Dimethyl ether(DME) is a promising new alternative fuel not only diesel fuel but also power generation, fuel cell and city gas. However, the physical properties are not similar to those of conventional diesel fuel. The P-v, bulk modulus and viscosity of DME are derived as a function of temperature and pressure. As a Result, the Weber and Reynolds number of DME is very large as compared with that of diesel fuel. So, the spray characteristics of DME is not the liquid spray but similar to that of gas spray. The spray formation is strongly affected by the fuel flow in the nozzle. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the experiments are examined to analyze the fuel flow in the nozzle. The DME physical properties make some difference of the flow in the nozzle, comparing with those of diesel. As a CFD result, cavitation in the injection nozzle is more frequent with DME than with diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics for Various Ambient Pressure of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2002-05-06
2002-01-1711
Recently, dimethyl ether (DME) has been attracting much attention as a clean alternative fuel, since the thermal efficiency of DME powered diesel engine is comparable to diesel fuel operation and soot free combustion can be achieved. In this experiment, the effect of ambient pressure on DME spray was investigated with observation of droplet size such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD) by the shadowgraph and image processing method. The higher ambient pressure obstructs the growth of DME spray, therefore faster breakup was occurred, and liquid column was thicker with increasing the ambient pressure. Then engine performances and exhaust emissions characteristics of DME diesel engine were investigated with various compression ratios. The minimum compression ratio for the easy start and stable operation was obtained at compression ratio of about 12.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Combustion Process of a DI CI Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether

2001-09-24
2001-01-3504
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is one of the major candidates for the next generation fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It has good self-ignitability and would not produce particulate, even at rich conditions. DME has proved to be able to apply to ordinary diesel engines with minimal modifications, but its combustion characteristics are not completely understood. In this study, the behavior of a DME spray and combustion process of a direct injection CI engine fueled with DME was investigated by combustion observation and in-cylinder gas sampling. To distinguish evaporated and non-evaporated zones of a spray, direct and schlieren imaging were carried out. The sampled gas from a DME spray was analyzed by gas chromatography, and the major intermediate product histories during ignition period were analyzed.
Technical Paper

DME Fuel Blends for Low-Emission, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-2004
Based on the knowledge that cavitation in a nozzle enhances the atomization of fuel spray, fuel modification is conducted by blending Dimethyl Ether (DME). Because the boiling point of DME is -24.8°C, it may easily take place during the cavitation in an injection nozzle. Furthermore, there is a soot reduction effect caused by the oxygenated fuels. The oxygen content in the DME is 34.8%, which accelerates soot reduction in the combustion chamber. The experimental results are compared with those of DiMethoxyMethan (Methylal: DMM), a blend of gas-oil. The ignition temperatures of DME and DMM are 235°C and 236°C, the boiling temperatures of DME and DMM are -24.8°C and 42.1°C, and the oxygen contents of DME and DMM are 34.8% and 42.1%, respectively. In addition to the oxygenated fuel, a propane blend of gas-oil was also used as a blended fuel in order to examine the effects of the boiling point and oxygen content of the fuel.
Technical Paper

NO Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Fueled with Neat Dimethyl Ether

1999-03-01
1999-01-1116
In this study, the NO emission characteristics of a dimethyl ether fueled compression ignition (CI) engine were studied, and a suitable combustion control concept was developed. A three-zone thermo-chemical model was used to understand the basic NO formation characteristics with dimethyl ether. The experimental study was carried out using a small direct-injection diesel engine. Comparison of the experimental and calculated results showed that the dimethyl ether / air mixing process was relatively slow compared with diesel fuel, which is the main reason for the relatively high NO emissions with dimethyl ether operation, in spite of its lower adiabatic flame temperature. To reduce the high temperature period, turbulence was introduced into the combustion chamber by a high-turbulence combustion system, which reduced NO emissions. It became clear that acceleration of the mixing process is an important factor for NO reduction with dimethyl ether spray combustion.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Exhaust Gas Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operated with DME Blended Gas Oil Fuel

1998-10-19
982538
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is a promising new alternative fuel for compression ignition DI engines. However, some problems arise from the poor lubricity of DME. Breakdown of the film bearing between needle and sleeve of the injector can lead to mechanical wear and leakage, a problem that is not mitigated easily. For example, the application of returning the leakage to fuel tank could raise a back pressure on the injection needle. This pressure can affect injection rate and consequently engine performance. In this study, fuels based on various DME to gas oil (diesel fuel) ratios were investigated, in part. Physical and chemical properties of DME and gas oil are shown to lead to mutual solubility at any ratio. Blended fuels have a higher lubricity compared with pure’ DME and a better injection spray compared with pure gas oil.
Technical Paper

Comparative Investigation on Fuel Feed Methods in Two-Stroke Cycle Methanol Engine

1992-10-01
922312
A direct fuel-injection two-stroke cycle engine operated with neat methanol was investigated. The engine performance, combustion and exhaust-gas characteristics were analyzed experimentally and compared for operation with a carburetor, EFI injection at the intake manifold, and EFI injection at the scavenging port. The power and the brake thermal efficiency of the direct fuel-injection engine were higher than those of engines operated with a carburetor and either of the two EFI methods. The exhausted unburnt fuel of the direct fuel-injection engine was lower than that for operation with a carburetor, and formaldehyde and the CO concentration were of the same level as for operation with the carburetor and EFI methods. The NOx concentration of the direct fuel-injection was half the level of the result of carburetor operation.
Technical Paper

A Study of Compression Ignition Engine Operated by Various Biomass Fuels

1991-10-01
912335
The engine performance, combustion characteristics and exhaust emission of pre-chamber type compression ignition engine operated by various biomass fuels were investigated experimentally. The biomass fuel investigated in this report are an emulsified fuel made with gas oil and hydrous ethanol or hydrous methanol, an emulsified fuel made with hydrous methanol and rape-seed oil, and neat rape-seed oil, and gas oil. There are small deviations of the experimental results between the biomass fuels, however, the general tendencies of the engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics operated by biomass fuels are as follows: The brake thermal efficiency during biomass fuel operation becomes maximum at a certain injection timing as well as those of the gas oil operation. And this injection timing is advanced with increasing the biomass content in the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Prechamber-type Compression Ingition Engine Operated by Composite Fuels

1991-09-01
911768
Reduction of soot and NOx emissions from a prechamber-type diesel engine is studied by employing both chemical and physical aspects of the fuel and induction method. Fuel modification was performed to produce several forms of composite fuel: solution of alcohol and gas oil (JIS No. 1); emulsification and mixture of methyl alcohol-gas oil prepared by off- and in-line fuel systems; and separate injection of fuels into the pre- and main-chamber.
Technical Paper

Influence of Operating Conditions on Output, Exhaust Emission and Combustion Variation of Low Compression Ratio Methanol Injection Engines

1991-02-01
910866
In this study, accordingly, methanol fuel was supplied in suction pipe with carburetor and with electronically-controlled fuel injector (EFI), which located in front of the suction valve, to clear experimentally the influence of various factors, such as the methanol-gasoline ratio (M/F), the difference in fuel feed system, the number of times of injection [ni], the injection timing (θinj), the engine speed (N), the volumetric efficiency (η v), the suction pipe wall temperature (tw), the water content in fuel (yw) etc., on the engine performance (the output and the thermal efficiency), the exhaust characteristics (NOx, CO, UBF and HCHO concentrations) and combustion variation as well as obtaining a guideline to establish the optimum condition. The authors will be report about the results of above-mentioned.
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