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Technical Paper

On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

Internal combustion engines are increasingly being equipped with turbochargers to increase performance and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Being part of exhaust and intake systems, the turbocharger strongly influences the orifice noise emission. Although 1D-CFD simulations are commonly used for the development of intake and exhaust systems, validated acoustic turbocharger models are not yet state-of-the-art. Consequently, the aim of the paper is the investigation of the turbocharger’s influence on the orifice noise and the development of an accurate 1D-CFD model. The passive acoustic transmission loss was measured for a wide operating range of four turbochargers, including wastegate and VTG-system variations. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio.
Technical Paper

Advanced Functional Pulse Testing of a Two-Stage VCR-System

Two-stage variable compression ratio (VCR) systems for spark ignited engines offer a CO2 reduction potential of approx. 5%. Due to their modularity, connecting rod based VCR-systems can be integrated into existing engine assembly systems, where engines can be built in parallel with or without such a system, depending on performance and market requirements. In order to comply with the new RDE emission standards with high specific power engine variants, VCR systems enable high load engine operation without fuel enrichment. The interactions between the hydraulic-, mechanical - and oil supply systems of a VCR-system with variable connecting rod length are complex and require a well-developed and adapted layout of all subsystems. This demands the use of tailored measurement and simulation tools during the development and application phases. In this context, Advanced Functional Pulse Testing enables single-parameter analyses of VCR con rods.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Oil Sources in the Combustion Chamber of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

To reduce hydrocarbon and particle emissions as well as irregular combustion phenomena, the identification and quantification of possible oil sources in the combustion chamber of the direct injection gasoline engine are of main interest. The aim of this research activity is to fundamentally investigate the formation of locally increased lubricating oil concentration in the combustion chamber. For this purpose, the oil sources are considered separately from each other and divided into two groups - piston/compression ring and lubricating film on the liner. The associated oil emissions and their influence on the engine combustion process are the core of the investigations.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Journal Article

Mixture-Formation Analysis by PLIF in an HSDI Diesel Engine Using C8-Oxygenates as the Fuel

With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Combination of Fuel Properties for a DI-Diesel Engine Under Partly Homogeneous Combustion

Partly homogeneous combustion (PHC) can assist the reduction of the engine-out emissions but its influence is limited by using conventional diesel fuel. To verify whether alternatively designed fuels can help to improve the PHC performance, the impact of different fuel properties in combination with engine control levers have been studied. Based on single cylinder heavy duty direct injection diesel engine (DIDE) test results with different diesel and diesel-like fuels, operating under partly homogeneous combustion conditions, the impact of the combination of the fuel properties were investigated. The fuel matrix was designed such that the fuel properties varied in sufficiently large ranges, in order to be able to detect the impact of the properties at the selected operating points. A statistical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to the fuel matrix to specify the interrelationship between the fuel properties, as well as to derive the most independent fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Variable Compressor Pre Swirl Devices in Consideration of Different Sealing Concepts

For turbocharged engines high specific power and torque output as well as a fast transient response are mandatory. This conflict of aims can be solved by different charging systems, for example 2-stage charging or variable turbine geometry. At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University another alternative, the variable compressor pre swirl, was investigated for solving this conflict of aims. Based on theoretical fundamentals the potentials of a variable compressor pre swirl for transient response, low end torque, specific power output and fuel consumption were presented. These theoretical potentials were explored on turbocharger -, engine - and vehicle test bench. An extended compressor map with partial higher compressor efficiency of up to 2% was detected. The outcome of this is an increase of up to 6% in low end torque, found on engine test bench. This effect could also be validated in 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Certain Alcohol and Furan-Based Biofuels on Controlled Auto Ignition

For gasoline engines controlled autoignition provides the vision of enabling the fuel consumption benefit of stratified lean combustion systems without the drawback of additional NOx aftertreatment. In this study the potential of certain biofuels on this combustion system was assessed by single-cylinder engine investigations using the exhaust strategy "combustion chamber recirculation" (CCR). For the engine testing sweeps in the internal EGR rate with different injection strategies as well as load sweeps were performed. Of particular interest was to reveal fuel differences in the achievable maximal load as well as in the NOx emission behavior. Additionally, experiments with a shock tube and a rapid compression machine were conducted in order to determine the ignition delay times of the tested biofuels concerning controlled autoignition-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Optical Analysis of Oil Dilution in Diesel Regeneration Operation

High levels of exhaust temperature or rich mixtures are necessary for the regeneration of today's diesel particulate filters or NOx catalysts. Therefore, late main injection or post injection is an effective strategy but leads to the well-known problem of lubricating oil dilution depending on the geometry, rail pressure and injection strategy. In this paper a method is developed to simulate fuel entrainment into the lubricating oil wall film in the diesel combustion chamber to predict oil dilution in an early design stage prior to hardware availability for durability testing. The simulation method integrates a newly developed droplet-film interaction model and is compared to results of an optical single-cylinder diesel engine and a similar thermodynamic single-cylinder test engine. Phenomena of diesel post injection like igniting early post injection or split post injections with short energizing times are considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Properties on the Performance of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine under Part Homogeneous Operating Conditions

Tightening of emission norms necessitate intensified research in the field of emissions reduction. Fuel research opens up a vast area of potential improvement, since combustion behavior and the nature of the combustion products can be heavily influenced by fuel composition. In this paper, the effects of fuel properties on combustion and emissions shall be discussed, based on the study of standard diesel fuel, two types of diesel-like fuels and a kerosene fuel. Investigations were conducted on a single cylinder heavy duty direct-injected diesel engine operating under part-homogeneous combustion in the part-load operating range. For this purpose, a statistical design of experiments method (DOE) was utilized in order to evaluate the influence of each fuel property and, thus, develop a model for all selected fuels. Variation in EGR rates, injection and air patterns have significant effects on the combustion in the fuels under investigation.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Port Design on the Flow Field Stability of a Gasoline DI Engine

The application of technologies such as direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve timing has caused a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions. The current developments are primarily focused on the realization of improved full load characteristics and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbo charging and high specific power. The requirements of high specific power in a relatively small cylinder displacement and a wide range of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and to a high number of degrees of freedom during engine layout and optimization. One of the major targets is to assess the stability of the combustion system in the early development phase.
Technical Paper

A New CFD Approach for Assessment of Swirl Flow Pattern in HSDI Diesel Engines

The fulfillment of the aggravated demands on future small-size High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel engines requires next to the optimization of the injection system and the combustion chamber also the generation of an optimal in-cylinder swirl charge motion. To evaluate different port concepts for modern HSDI Diesel engines, usually quantities as the in-cylinder swirl ratio and the flow coefficient are determined, which are measured on a steady-state flow test bench. It has been shown that different valve lift strategies nominally lead to similar swirl levels. However, significant differences in combustion behavior and engine-out emissions give rise to the assumption that local differences in the in-cylinder flow structure caused by different valve lift strategies have noticeable impact. In this study an additional criterion, the homogeneity of the swirl flow, is introduced and a new approach for a quantitative assessment of swirl flow pattern is presented.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Spray-Bowl Interaction Using Two-Part Analysis in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of spray-bowl interaction on combustion, and pollutants formation at one specific high-load point of a single-cylinder small-bore diesel engine through computational analysis. The simulations are performed using Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model with detailed chemical kinetics. Detailed chemistry-based soot model is used for the prediction of soot emissions. The simulations are performed for five different injection timings. Model-predicted cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions are validated against the measured data for all the injection timings. A new method - Two-part analysis - is then applied to investigate the spray-bowl interaction. Two-part analysis splits the volume of the combustion chamber into two, namely the piston bowl and the squish volume. Through analysis, among others the histories of soot, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO ) emissions inside both volumes are shown.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Journal Article

Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio with Eccentric Piston Pin and Exploitation of Crank Train Forces

By variation of the compression ratio the fuel consumption of high boosted gasoline engines can be reduced, due to operating with higher compression ratios at low load compared to an engine with fixed compression ratio. The two-stage VCR-system enables a high share of fuel saving potential relative to full variable systems. Considering a low cost manufacturability and a beneficial integratability into common engine architectures the length-adjustable conrod using an eccentric piston pin in the small eye has proved as the best concept. The adjustment is performed by a combination of gas and mass forces. This article describes the design of such a two-stage VCR-system as well as the functional testing under motored and fired engine operating conditions.