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Technical Paper

Relevance of Exhaust Aftertreatment System Degradation for EU7 Gasoline Engine Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0382
Exhaust aftertreatment systems must function sufficiently over the full useful life of a vehicle. In Europe this is currently defined as 160.000 km. With the introduction of Euro 7 it is expected that the required mileage will be extended to 240.000 km. This will then be consistent with the US legislation. In order to quantify the emission impact of exhaust system degradation, an Euro 7 exhaust aftertreatment system is aged by different accelerated approaches: application of the Standard Bench Cycle, the ZDAKW cycle, a novel ash loading method and borderline aging. The results depict the impact of oil ash on the oxygen storage capacity. For tailpipe emissions, the maximum peak temperatures are the dominant aging factor. The cold start performance is effected by both, thermal degradation and ash accumulation. An evaluation of this emission increase requires appropriate benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Dynamic oil pressure in connecting rod bearings and their influence on innovative cranktrain technologies

2019-12-19
2019-01-2333
In order to lower friction losses and hence ensure low fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, borderline design of hydrodynamic cranktrain bearings is often unavoidable. To realize this without the risk of failures, detailed modelling of hydrodynamic effects is gaining more and more relevance. In this publication, an approach using flow simulation to couple hydrodynamic bearings with each other, will be introduced. This allows the state variables of the fluid in the supply bore of the crankshaft to be calculated transiently. One important aspect of this concerns the solubility of gas in oil. This paper demonstrates that the gas fractions in the supply bore of the crankshaft influence the pressures at the hydrodynamic bearings. Additionally, simulation results will be shown and also validated with measurement data.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Potential of Direct Water Injection in HCCI Combustion

2019-12-19
2019-01-2165
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a part load, low-temperature combustion process which operates at lean mixtures and produces ultra-low NOX emissions. As opposed to SI engines that use a spark to control combustion timing, HCCI combustion is enabled by compression induced autoignition which is characterized by rapid global and spatial combustion yielding fuel efficiency benefits. This process is highly dependent on the in-cylinder state, including pressure, temperature and trapped mass. The absence of a direct combustion control proves to be a major challenge and results in unstable engine operation especially at the limits of the narrow operation range. In recent studies, direct water injection is used in HCCI combustion to stabilize combustion and increase the operation range. This paper outlines the thermodynamic influence and evaluation of the potential of water injection for HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

2019-10-07
2019-24-0234
Oxygenated fuels such as polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (OME) offer a chance to significantly decrease emissions while switching to renewable fuels. However, compared to conventional diesel fuel, they have lower heating values and different evaporation behaviors which lead to differences in spray, mixture formation as well as ignition delay. In order to determine the mixture formation characteristics and the combustion behavior of neat OME3-5, optical investigations have been carried out in a high-pressure-chamber using shadowgraphy, mie-scatterlight and OH-radiation recordings. Liquid penetration length, gaseous penetration length, lift off length, spray cone angle and ignition delay have been determined and compared to those measured with diesel-fuel over a variety of pressures, temperatures, rail pressures and injection durations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
Journal Article

On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

2019-06-05
2019-01-1488
Most of today’s internal combustion engines are turbocharged by combined radial compressors and turbines for downsizing. This mostly leads to reduced orifice noise of both intake and exhaust systems, but the detailed damping mechanisms remain yet unknown. Intake and exhaust systems are developed with 1D-CFD simulations, but validated acoustic sub-models for turbochargers are not yet available. Therefore the aim of this publication is studying the turbocharger’s silencing capabilities and subsequently develop new acoustic turbocharger models. The acoustic properties of the turbocharger can be well described by transmission loss. In addition to thermodynamic variations, parameter variations with wastegate and VTG systems were also performed. A total of four turbochargers of very different sizes were investigated. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Valve Timing and Multi-Pulse Injection on GCAI Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0967
Gasoline Controlled Auto-Ignition (GCAI) combustion, which can be categorized under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is a low-temperature combustion process with promising benefits such as ultra-low cylinder-out NOx emissions and reduced brake-specific fuel consumption, which are the critical parameters in any modern engine. Since this technology is based on uncontrolled auto-ignition of a premixed charge, it is very sensitive to any change in boundary conditions during engine operation. Adopting real time valve timing and fuel-injection strategies can enable improved control over GCAI combustion. This work discusses the outcome of collaborative experimental research by the partnering institutes in this direction. Experiments were performed in a single cylinder GCAI engine with variable valve timing and Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In the first phase intake and exhaust valve timing sweeps were investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Space- and Species-Resolved Measurements of Engine-Out Emissions from a Single-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0745
The development and validation of detailed simulation models of in-cylinder combustion, emission formation mechanisms and reaction kinetics in the exhaust system are of crucial importance for the design of future low-emission powertrain concepts. To investigate emission formation mechanisms on one side and to create a solid basis for the validation of simulation methodologies (e.g. 3D-CFD, multi-dimensional in-cylinder models, etc.) on the other side, specific detailed measurements in the exhaust system are required. In particular, the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are difficult to be investigated in simulation and experimentally, due to their complex composition and their post-oxidation in the exhaust system. In this work, different emission measurement devices were used to track the emission level and composition at different distances from the cylinder along the exhaust manifold, from the exhaust valve onwards.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Oxygenated-Fuel Combustion by Quantitative Multiscalar SRS/LIF Measurements in a Diesel-Like Jet

2018-09-28
2018-01-5037
Due to experimental challenges, combustion of diesel-like jets has rarely been characterized by laser-based quantitative multiscalar measurements. In this work, recently developed laser diagnostics for combustion temperature and the concentrations of CO, O2, and NO are applied to a diesel-like jet, using a highly oxygenated fuel. The diagnostic is based on spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods. Line imaging yields multiscalar profiles across the jet cross section. Measurements turn out to be particularly accurate, because near-stoichiometric combustion occurs in the central region of the jet. Thereby, experimental cross-influences by light attenuation and interfering emissions are greatly reduced compared to the combustion of conventional, sooting diesel fuel jets. This is achieved by fuel oxygenation and enhanced premixing.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Oil Sources in the Combustion Chamber of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1811
To reduce hydrocarbon and particle emissions as well as irregular combustion phenomena, the identification and quantification of possible oil sources in the combustion chamber of the direct injection gasoline engine are of main interest. The aim of this research activity is to fundamentally investigate the formation of locally increased lubricating oil concentration in the combustion chamber. For this purpose, the oil sources are considered separately from each other and divided into two groups - piston/compression ring and lubricating film on the liner. The associated oil emissions and their influence on the engine combustion process are the core of the investigations.
Technical Paper

Comparing Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Fuel Spray with Measured Quantitative Flame Parameters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1720
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions, it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels from renewable sources. For identifying the specification of an optimized fuel for engine combustion, it is essential to understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation. For obtaining a better understanding of the flame behavior, dynamic structure large eddy simulations are a method of choice. In the investigation presented in this paper, an n-heptane spray flame is simulated under engine relevant conditions starting at a pressure of 50 bar and a temperature of 800 K. Measurements are conducted at a high-pressure vessel with the same conditions. Liquid penetration length is measured with Mie-Scatterlight, gaseous penetration length with Shadowgraphy and lift-off length as well as ignition delay with OH*-Radiation. In addition to these global high-speed measurement techniques, detailed spectroscopic laser measurements are conducted at the n-heptane flame.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Operators and Fuel Grades on Particulate Emissions of an SI Engine in Dynamic Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0350
With the implementation of the “Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure” (WLTP) and the highly dynamic “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE) tests in Europe, different engineering methodologies from virtual calibration approaches to Engine-in-the-loop (EiL) methods have to be considered to define and calibrate efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies without the availability of prototype vehicles in early project phases. Since different types of testing facilities can be used, the effects of test benches as well as real and virtual vehicle operators have to be determined. Moreover, in order to effectively reduce harmful emissions, the reproducibility of test cycles is essential for an accurate and efficient application of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems and the calibration of internal combustion engines.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0163
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Journal Article

Fuel Cell System Development: A Strong Influence on FCEV Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-1305
In this article, the development challenges of a fuel cell system are explained using the example of the BREEZE! fuel cell range extender (FC-REX) applied in an FEV Liiona. The FEV Liiona is a battery electric vehicle based on a Fiat 500 developed by FEV. The BREEZE! system is the first applied 30 kW low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (LT PEM) fuel cell system in the subcompact vehicle class. Due to the highly integrated system approach and dry cathode operation, a compact design of the range extender module with a system power density of 0.45 kW/l can be achieved so that the vehicle interior including trunk remains completely usable. System development for fuel cells significantly influences performance, efficiency, package, durability, and required maintenance effort of a fuel cell electric powertrain. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation, the fuel cell system has to be supplied with sufficient amounts of air, hydrogen, and coolant flows.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biofuels on the Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Diesel-Like Jets

2017-10-08
2017-01-2332
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
Journal Article

Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2017-10-08
2017-01-2295
The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Full Thermodynamic Potential of C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0118
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0711
The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Journal Article

Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps

2016-10-17
2016-01-2255
Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.
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