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Technical Paper

Selecting an Expansion Machine for Vehicle Waste-Heat Recovery Systems Based on the Rankine Cycle

An important objective in combustion engine research is to develop strategies for recovering waste heat and thereby increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Waste-heat recovery systems based on the Rankine cycle are the most efficient tools for recovering energy from the exhaust gas and the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The properties of the working fluid and the expansion machine have significant effects on Rankine cycle efficiency. The expansion machine is particularly important because it is the interface at which recovered heat energy is ultimately converted into power. Parameters such as the pressure, temperature and mass-flow conditions in the cycle can be derived for a given waste-heat source and expressed as dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine whether displacement expanders or turbo expanders would be preferable under the circumstances considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Working Fluids in Both Subcritical and Supercritical Rankine Cycles for Waste-Heat Recovery Systems in Heavy-Duty Vehicles

In a modern internal combustion engine, most of the fuel energy is dissipated as heat, mainly in the form of hot exhaust gas. A high temperature is required to allow conversion of the engine-out emissions in the catalytic system, but the temperature is usually still high downstream of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. One way to recover some of this residual heat is to implement a Rankine cycle, which is connected to the exhaust system via a heat exchanger. The relatively low weight increase due to the additional components does not cause a significant fuel penalty, particularly for heavy-duty vehicles. The efficiency of a waste-heat recovery system such as a Rankine cycle depends on the efficiencies of the individual components and the choice of a suitable working fluid for the given boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray-Wall Interaction of Diesel Sprays

Wall wetting can occur irrespective of combustion concept in diesel engines, e.g. during the compression stroke. This action has been related to engine-out emissions in different ways, and an experimental investigation of impinging diesel sprays is thus made for a standard diesel fuel and a two-component model fuel (IDEA). The experiment was performed at conditions corresponding to those found during the compression stroke in a heavy duty diesel engine. The spray characteristics of two fuels were measured using two different optical methods: a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high-speed imaging. A temperature controlled wall equipped with rapid, coaxial thermocouples was used to record the change in surface temperature from the heat transfer of the impinging sprays.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Wall Film Thickness for Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature-Controlled Wall

Analysis of spray-wall interaction is a major issue in the study of the combustion process in DI diesel engines. Along with spray characteristics, the investigation of impinging sprays and of liquid wall film development is fundamental for predicting the mixture formation. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated and improved; nevertheless they can extend and complement experimental measurements. In this paper the wall film thickness for impinging sprays was investigated by evaluating the heat transfer across a temperature controlled wall. In fact, heat transfer is significantly affected by the wall film thickness, and both experiments and simulations were carried out to correlate the wall temperature variations and film height. The numerical simulations were carried out using the STAR-CD and the KIVA-3V, rel. 2, codes.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature Controlled Wall

Both spray-wall and spray-spray interactions in direct injection diesel engines have been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated, and an issue is investigating what kind of fuels can be used in both experiments and spray calculations. The objective of this work is to compare numerical simulations with experimental data of sprays impinging on a temperature controlled wall with respect to spray characteristics and heat transfer. The numerical simulations were made using the STAR-CD and KIVA-3V codes. The CFD simulations accounted for the actual spray chamber geometry and operating conditions used in the experiments. Particular attention was paid to the fuel used for the simulations.
Technical Paper

Spray-Wall Interaction: Diesel Fuels Impinging on a Tempered Wall

Heat transfer from impinging sprays in direct injected diesel engines has been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. The use of multiple injections may also affect heat transfer. The objective of this work is to study heat transfer between the wall and the spray, and how the surface temperature of the wall affects spray behaviour in single and split injections. Two different diesel fuels were used in the experiments, noteworthy is that the diesel fuel had a higher radial penetration rate than the Idea fuel at evaporating conditions but not at non-evaporating conditions. The wall temperature has no measurable influence on radial penetration but does have a significant influence on the heat transfer.