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Technical Paper

Exhaust System Heat Transfer and Catalytic Converter Performance

Three-way catalytic converters used on spark ignition engines have performance and durability characteristics which are effected by the thermal environment in which these operate. The design of the exhaust system and the location of the catalyst unit are important in controlling the range of thermal states the catalyst is exposed to. A model of system thermal behaviour has been developed to support studies of these. The exhaust system is modelled as connected pipe and junction elements with lumped thermal capacities. Heat transfer correlations for quasi-steady and transient conditions have been investigated. The catalytic converter is treated as elemental slices in series. Exothermic heat release and heat exchange between the monolith, mat, and shell are described in the model. A similar description is applied to lean NOx trap units.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Engine Heat Transfer for Heat Rejection and Warm-Up Modelling

A correlation for total gas-side heat transfer rate has been derived from the analysis of engine data for measured heat rejection rate, frictional dissipation, and published data on exhaust port heat transfer. The correlation is related to the form developed by Taylor and Toong, and the analysis draws on this. However, cylinder and exhaust port contributions are separated. Two empirical constants are fixed to best match predicted to measured results for heat rejection to coolant and oil cooler under steady-state conditions, and also for exhaust port heat transfer rates. The separated contributions also defined a correlation for exhaust port heat transfer rate. The description of gas-side heat transfer is suited to needs for the analysis of global thermal behaviour of engines.
Technical Paper

Progress on Modelling Engine Thermal Behaviour for VTMS Applications

A suite of computer programs for engine thermal analysis and the analysis of thermal interactions with external systems has been developed. Defining an engine design is made particularly simple and the representation generated agrees well with measured data. Engine geometry, mass, and internal coolant volume are determined from a short list of key parameters and the selection of a generic template. Thermal conditions in the engine structure are modelled numerically using the lumped-capacity method. Heat exchange at boundaries with gas, coolant and oil flows are described through sub-models giving good agreement with data for global characteristics of engine behaviour. The effects of spark timing and coolant composition on heat transfer rates are taken into account, as is the effect of frictional dissipation as a heat source. Validation and applications of the model are described.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Mixture Composition on Engine Heat Rejection Rate

The rate of heat rejection to the coolant system of an internal combustion engine depends upon coolant composition, among other factors, because this influences the coolant side heat transfer coefficient. The correlation developed by Taylor and Toong for heat transfer rate has been modified to account for this effect. The modification retains the gas-to-coolant passage thermal resistance implicit in the original correlation. The modified correlation gives predictions in agreement with experimental data. Compared to 100% water, mixtures of 50% ethylene glycol/50% water lower heat rejection rates by typically 5% and up to 25% in the extreme. This depends upon local conditions in the coolant circuit, which can give rise to different heat transfer regimes. Application of the modified correlation is outlined and illustrated.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber Walls in Spark Ignition Engines

The cycle-by-cycle variation of heat transferred per cycle (q) to the combustion chamber surfaces of spark ignition engines has been investigated for quasi-steady and transient conditions produced by throttle movements. The heat transfer calculation is by integration of the instantaneous value over the cycle, using the Woschni correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. By examination of the results obtained, a relatively simple correlation has been identified: This holds both for quasi-steady and transient conditions and is on a per cylinder basis. The analysis has been extended to define a heat flux distribution over the surface of the chamber. This is given by: where F(x/L) is a polynomial function, q″ is the heat transfer per cycle per unit area to head and piston crown surfaces and gives the distribution along the liner
Technical Paper

The Determination of Heat Transfer from the Combustion Chambers of SI Engines

Two methods of determining the rate of heat transfer from the combustion chamber have been investigated. A First Law analysis is shown to be ill-conditioned because of sensitivity to heat release and gas property calculations. An alternative approach equates cycle-averaged chamber heat transfer to the difference between heat rejected to the coolant and gas heat transfer to the exhaust port. This has been examined as a basis for calibrating the Woschni correlation.
Technical Paper

A Model for the Investigation of Temperature, Heat Flow and Friction Characteristics During Engine Warm-Up

A computational model has been developed to support investigations of temperature, heat flow and friction characteristics, particularly in connection with warm-up behaviour. A lumped capacity model of the engine block and head, empirically derived correlations for local heat transfer and friction losses, and oil and coolant circuit descriptions form the core of the model. Validation of the model and illustrative results are reported.
Technical Paper

Warm-Up Characteristics of Surface Temperatures in an I.C. Engine Measured by Thermal Imaging Technique

The warm-up characteristics of a spark-ignition engine significantly affect fuel consumption and emissions from cars. A thermal imaging technique has been applied to measure the cylinder head surface temperature and piston surface temperature of an internal combustion engine simultaneously. The two-dimensional thermal images of the cylinder head surface temperature were viewed through an infra-red transmitting window mounted in the piston. The piston surface temperature was measured by painting black two small areas of the window's top surface. The similar thermal characteristics of the window material (silicon) to those of a normal piston and good heat transfer between the window and the piston provided realistic operation conditions. The mean and extreme values of the inlet valve, exhaust valve, two other areas of the cylinder head surface and window surface temperatures were measured from the thermal images during the first two minutes of the engine start.