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Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Journal Article

Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1429
When considered along with Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) requirements, the proposed Air Resource Board (ARB) nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation, the NOx conversion efficiency during the cold start of the emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required. In this article, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), an SCR-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (SDPF), a stand-alone selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and an ammonia slip catalyst (ASC) was calibrated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Parasitic Losses in Front-End-Accessory-Drive Systems - Part 1

2017-03-28
2017-01-0893
Demanding CO2 and fuel economy regulations are continuing to pressure the automotive industry into considering innovative powertrain and vehicle-level solutions. Powertrain engineers continue to minimize engine internal friction and transmission parasitic losses with the aim of reducing overall vehicle fuel consumption. Strip friction methods are used to determine and isolate components in engines and transmissions with the highest contribution to friction losses. However, there is relatively little focus on friction optimization of Front-End-Accessory-Drive (FEAD) components such as alternators and Air Conditioning (AC) compressors. This paper expands on the work performed by other researchers’ specifically targeting in-depth understanding of system design and operating strategy.
Journal Article

Cylinder Pressure Based Fuel Path Control for Non-Conventional Combustion Modes

2015-09-06
2015-24-2508
Model-based control strategies along with an adapted calibration process become more important in the overall vehicle development process. The main drivers for this development trend are increasing numbers of vehicle variants and more complex engine hardware, which is required to fulfill the more and more stringent emission legislation and fuel consumption norms. Upcoming fundamental changes in the homologation process with EU 6c, covering an extended range of different operational and ambient conditions, are suspected to intensify this trend. One main reason for the increased calibration effort is the use of various complex aftertreatment technologies amongst different vehicle applications, requiring numerous combustion modes. The different combustion modes range from heating strategies for active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration or early SCR light-off and rich combustion modes to purge the NOx storage catalyst (NSC) up to partially premixed combustion modes.
Journal Article

OBD Diagnostic Strategies for LEVIII Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1040
Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
Journal Article

Feedforward Control Approach for Digital Combustion Rate Shaping Realizing Predefined Combustion Processes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0876
The aim of this research collaboration focuses on the realization of a novel Diesel combustion control strategy, known as Digital Combustion Rate Shaping (DiCoRS) for transient engine operation. Therefore, this paper presents an initial, 3D-CFD simulation based evaluation of a physical model-based feedforward controller, considered as a fundamental tool to apply real-time capable combustion rate shaping to a future engine test campaign. DiCoRS is a promising concept to improve noise, soot and HC/CO emissions in parallel, without generating drawbacks in NOx emission and combustion efficiency. Instead of controlling distinct combustion characteristics, DiCoRS aims at controlling the full combustion process and therefore represents the highest possible degree of freedom for combustion control. The manipulated variable is the full injection profile, generally consisting of multiple injection events.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Diesel-Natural Gas RCCI Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0849
Substitution of diesel fuel with natural gas in heavy-duty diesel engines offers significant advantages in terms of operating cost, as well as NOx, PM emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the challenges of high THC and CO emissions, combustion stability, exhaust temperatures and pressure rise rates limit the substitution levels across the engine operating map and necessitate an optimized combustion strategy. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has shown promise in regard to improving combustion efficiency at low and medium loads and simultaneously reducing NOx emissions at higher loads. RCCI combustion exploits the difference in reactivity between two fuels by introducing a less reactive fuel, such as natural gas, along with air during the intake stroke and igniting the air-CNG mixture by injecting a higher reactivity fuel, such as diesel, later in the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Robust Emission Compliance and Reduction of System Cost by advanced emission-based Diesel engine air management

2015-01-14
2015-26-0089
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0288
Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

2012-09-24
2012-01-1962
The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Investigation Regarding the Influence of a Catalytic Combustion Chamber Coating on Gasoline Combustion Characteristics, Emission Formation and Engine Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-1097
Over the past few years, both global warming and rising oil prices led to a significantly increased demand for low fuel consumption in passenger cars. However, the necessity to also meet the limits of today's and future emission regulations makes it more and more difficult to maintain a high engine efficiency without the use of an expensive external exhaust gas after-treatment system. Therefore, new technologies that simultaneously prevent emission formation and reduce fuel consumption inside the internal combustion engine during the combustion process itself are of highest interest. This paper analyzes the influence of a catalytic coating of the combustion chamber on combustion, emission formation and fuel consumption. For this purpose, test runs with a production 2.0-liter, 4-cylinder, 4-valve, double overhead camshaft (DOHC), port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine were performed.
Technical Paper

SOLID SCR®: Demonstrating an Improved Approach to NOx Reduction via a Solid Reductant

2011-09-13
2011-01-2207
Stringent global emissions legislation demands effective NOx reduction strategies, particularly for the aftertreatment, and current typical liquid urea SCR systems achieve efficiencies greater than 90% [1]. However, with such high-performing systems comes the trade-off of requiring a tank of reductant (urea water solution) to be filled regularly, usually as soon as the fuel fillings or as far as oil changes. Advantages of solid reductants, particularly ammonium carbamate, include greater ammonia densities, enabling the reductant refill interval to be extended several multiples versus a given reductant volume of urea, or diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) [2]. An additional advantage is direct gaseous ammonia dosing, enabling reductant injection at lower exhaust temperatures to widen its operational coverage achieving greater emissions reduction potential [3], as well as eliminating deposits, reducing mixing lengths, and avoiding freeze/thaw risks and investments.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Temperature Management for Diesel Engines Assessment of Engine Concepts and Calibration Strategies with Regard to Fuel Penalty

2011-09-11
2011-24-0176
Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the development of future diesel engines. These engines will comprise not only the mandatory diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate filter DPF but a NOx aftertreatment system as well - at least for heavier vehicles. The oxidation catalysts as well as currently available NOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e., LNT and SCR, rely on sufficient exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a proper conversion. This is getting more and more critical due to the fact that today's and future measures for CO₂ reduction will result in further decrease of engine-out temperatures. Additionally this development has to be considered in the light of further engine electrification and hybridization scenarios.
Technical Paper

Development and Calibration of On-Board-Diagnostic Strategies Using a Micro-HiL Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-0703
Beginning in 2010, implementation of on-board diagnostics (OBD) is mandatory for all the heavy-duty engine applications in the United States. The task of developing OBD strategies and calibrating them is a challenging one. The process involves a strong interdependency on base engine emissions, controls and regulations. On top of that the strategies developed as a result of the regulatory requirements need to go through a stringent and time-intensive process of software implementation and integration. The recent increasing demands to minimize the development process have been pushing the envelope on the methodologies used in developing the strategies and the calibration for robust monitoring. The goal of this paper is to provide a concise overview of a process utilized to help the development, testing and calibration of the OBD strategies on a 2010 model year heavy-duty diesel engine.
Journal Article

Pre-Turbo Aftertreatment Position for Large Bore Diesel Engines - Compact & Cost-Effective Aftertreatment with a Fuel Consumption Advantage

2011-04-12
2011-01-0299
Tier 4 emissions legislation is emerging as a clear pre-cursor for widespread adoption of exhaust aftertreatment in off-highway applications. Large bore engine manufacturers are faced with the significant challenge of packaging a multitude of catalyst technologies in essentially the same design envelope as their pre-Tier 4 manifestations, while contending with the fuel consumption consequences of the increased back pressure, as well as the incremental cost and weight associated with the aftertreatment equipment. This paper discusses the use of robust metallic catalysts upstream of the exhaust gas turbine, as an effective means to reduce catalyst volume and hence the weight and cost of the entire aftertreatment package. The primarily steady-state operation of many large bore engine applications reduces the complication of overcoming pre-turbine catalyst thermal inertia under transient operation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1122
Effects of six different fuels on low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion were experimentally investigated in this paper with a light-duty HSDI engine. The PCI combustion concept reduces NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously by low temperature and premixed combustion, respectively. To achieve low temperature and premixed combustion, the ignition delay is prolonged and the injection duration is shortened. Six fuels were chosen to examine the influence of cetane number (CN) and other fuel properties on low temperature PCI combustion. The fuel selection also included a pure Gas- to-Liquid (GTL) fuel and a blend of base diesel and 20% soy based biodiesel (B20). Fuel effects were studied over a matrix of seven part load points in the low temperature combustion mode. The seven part load points were specified by engine speed (RPM) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

2009-05-13
2009-01-1616
The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0488
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently. This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine.
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