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Journal Article

Experimental Studies on the Occurrence of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged GDI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0753
In the present paper the results of a set of experimental investigations on LSPI are discussed. The ignition system of a test engine was modified to enable random spark advance in one of the four cylinders. LSPI sequences were successfully triggered and exhibited similar characteristics compared to regularly occurring pre-ignition. Optical investigations applying a high speed camera system enabling a visualization of the combustion process were performed. In a second engine the influence of the physical properties of the considered lubricant on the LSPI frequency was analyzed. In addition different piston ring assemblies have been tested. Moreover an online acquisition of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhaust gas was performed. The combination of these experimental techniques in the present study provided further insights on the development of LSPI sequences.
Journal Article

Premature Flame Initiation in a Turbocharged DISI Engine - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0252
This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations on pre-ignition in a series-production turbocharged DISI engine. Previous studies led to the conclusion that pre-ignition can be triggered by auto-ignition of oil droplets generated in the combustion chamber. Analysis of more recent experiments shows that a modification of the engine operation parameters that promotes spray/lubricant interaction also increases pre-ignition frequency, while modifications that enhance the speed of chemical reactions (thereby favoring auto-ignition) have little or no influence. The experimental and numerical findings can be explained if we assume the existence of a substance (originating from lubricant/fuel interaction) that displays extremely short ignition delay times.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Ignition Processes Using High Frequency Ignition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1633
High frequency ignition (HFI) and conventional transistor coil ignition (TCI) were investigated with an optically accessible single-cylinder research engine to gain fundamental understanding of the chemical reactions taking place prior to the onset of combustion. Instead of generating heat in the gap of a conventional spark plug, a high frequency / high voltage electric field is employed in HFI to form chemical radicals. It is generated using a resonant circuit and sharp metallic tips placed in the combustion chamber. The setup is optimized to cause a so-called corona discharge in which highly energized channels (streamers) are created while avoiding a spark discharge. At a certain energy the number of ionized hydrocarbon molecules becomes sufficient to initiate self-sustained combustion. HFI enables engine operation with highly diluted (by air or EGR) gasoline-air mixtures or at high boost levels due to the lower voltage required.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Flow Velocity in the Spark Plug Gap of a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine using Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

2011-11-08
2011-32-0529
The two-stroke SI engine remains the dominant concept for handheld power tools. Its main advantages are a good power-to-weight ratio, simple mechanical design and low production costs. Because of these reasons, the two-stroke SI engine will remain the dominant engine in such applications for the foreseeable future. Increasingly stringent exhaust emission laws, in conjunction with the drive for more efficiency, have made new scavenging and combustion processes necessary. The main foci are to reduce raw emissions of unburned hydrocarbons via intelligent guidance of the fresh air-fuel mixture and to improve performance to reduce specific emissions. The flow velocity in the electrode gap of the spark plug is of great interest for the ignition of the air-fuel-mixture and the early combustion phase of all kinds of SI engines. In these investigations, the flow velocity in the spark plug gap of a two-stroke gasoline engine with stratified scavenging was measured under various conditions.
Journal Article

Effect of different nozzle geometries using Pure Rapeseed Oil in a modern Diesel engine on combustion and exhaust emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-1947
Rapeseed oil can be a possible substitute for fossil fuel in Diesel engines. Due to different physical properties of rapeseed oil like higher viscosity and higher compressibility compared to diesel fuel, rapeseed oil cannot be easily used in conventional Diesel engines without modifications. Especially incomplete combustion leads to deposits in the combustion chamber and higher exhaust gas emissions. These unfavorable characteristics are caused primarily by insufficient mixture preparation. The adjustment of the injection system will improve the mixture preparation and the combustion of a Diesel engine, operated with rapeseed oil. The nozzle geometry is the main parameter of the whole injection system chain to realize a better combustion process and so higher efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigations of the Vaporization Behaviors of Isooctane and an Optical, Non-fluorescing Multicomponent Fuel in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2271
Investigations of the fuel injection processes in a spark ignition direct injection engine have been performed for two different fuels. The goal of this research was to determine the differences between isooctane, which is often used as an alternative to gasoline for optical engine investigations, and a special, non-fluorescing, full boiling range multicomponent fuel. The apparent vaporization characteristics of isooctane and the multicomponent fuel were examined in homogeneous operating mode with direct injection during the intake stroke. To this end, simultaneous Mie scattering and planar laser induced fluorescence imaging experiments were performed in a transparent research engine. Both fuels were mixed with 3-Pentanone as a fluorescence tracer. A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser was used as both the fluorescent excitation source and the light scattering source.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Nozzle Hole Diameter on Highly Premixed and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion and Full Load Behavior

2010-10-25
2010-01-2109
Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Use of Ceramic Components in Sliding Systems for High-Pressure Gasoline Fuel Injection Pumps

2010-04-12
2010-01-0600
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
Journal Article

Investigations on Pre-Ignition in Highly Supercharged SI Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0355
This paper presents the results of a study on reasons for the occurrence of pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. During the study, the phenomena to be taken into account were foremost structured into a decision tree according to their physical working principles. Using this decision tree all conceivable single mechanisms to be considered as reasons for pre-ignition could be derived. In order to judge each of them with respect to their ability to promote pre-ignition in a test engine, experimental investigations as well as numerical simulations were carried out. The interdependence between engine operating conditions and pre-ignition frequency was examined experimentally by varying specific parameters. Additionally, optical measurements using an UV sensitive high-speed camera system were performed to obtain information about the spatial distribution of pre-ignition origins and their progress.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Formation and Oxidation of Soot Inside a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Advanced Laser-Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-0352
In this work the formation and oxidation of soot inside a direct injection spark ignition engine at different injection and ignition timing was investigated. In order to get two-dimensional data during the expansion stroke, the RAYLIX-technique was applied in the combustion chamber of an optical accessible single cylinder engine. This technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII) and extinction which enables simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean particle radii and number densities. These first investigations show that the most important source for soot formation during combustion are pool fires, i.e. liquid fuel burning on the top of the piston. These pool fires were observed under almost all experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurements in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0030
This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
Technical Paper

Ion-Current Measurement in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2008-09-09
2008-32-0037
The cyclic changes of the cylinder pressure are mainly influenced by the primary inflammation phase, which in turn depends on the local air/fuel ratio and the residual-gas fraction at the spark plug. The ion-current measurement technique is based on the conductivity of the mixture during the internal combustion. It is therefore possible to use the signal for combustion diagnostics when using the spark plug as a sensor. This article demonstrates the potential of ion sensing at the spark plug and in the combustion chamber to detect sources of interference which prevent an optimal combustion process. Comparing the ion signals of consecutive combustion cycles delivers explanations of phenomena that could not yet be sufficiently characterized by cylinder-pressure indication. The results allow new fundamental approaches to the optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection of Pure Rape Seed Oil in modern Diesel Engines with Direct-Injection

2007-07-23
2007-01-2031
Natural vegetable oil like rape seed oil is a potential substitute for regular fuel for diesel engines. Compared to other biogen fuels like rape seed methyl ester (RME), pure rape seed oil is neutral towards groundwater and it needs considerably less energy and additives for production. Different physical properties of rape seed oil compared to Diesel fuel are the reason why conventional Diesel engines can hardly be used satisfactorily with rape seed oil without being modified. Poor exhaust-emission behavior is caused by the incomplete combustion. Due to poor spray atomization of vegetable oil, an increased fuel entrainment in the lubricating oil, carbonization in the combustion chamber and deposits at injectors and valves are further drawbacks of injection systems designed for conventional diesel fuel. The preheating of this fuel can solve some problems.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Simulation of a Two- Stroke Engine

2006-11-13
2006-32-0062
The paper presents an application of a quasi-dimensional (QD) model for the combustion simulation in a two-stroke engine. In contrast to 0D-models the QD-models provide an opportunity to describe the development of the combustion process in dependence on the actual thermodynamic state in the combustion chamber. The QD-models enable to couple the flame propagation with the combustion chamber geometry and with the flow field. An extensive sensitivity analysis is performed for the QD-model by varying the parameters of the QD-model itself and of the operating points. The constructed QD-model is examined under various conditions (engine speed, the delivery ratio and the air to fuel ratio) and shows a good agreement with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Application of Multifiber Optics in Handheld Power Tools with High Speed Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0060
When developing effective exhaust emission reduction measures, a better understanding of the complex working cycle in crankcase scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines. However, in a two-stroke gasoline engine detailed measurement and analysis of combustion data requires significantly more effort, when compared to a lower speed four-stroke engine. Particularly demanding are the requirements regarding the high speed (>10,000 rpm) which inevitably goes along with heavy vibrations and high temperatures of the air cooled cylinders. Another major challenge to the measuring equipment is the increased cleaning demand of the optical sensor surface due to the two-stroke gasoline mixture. In addition, the measuring equipment has to be adapted to the small size engines. Therefore, only a fiber optical approach can deliver insight into the cylinder for analyzing the combustion performance.
Technical Paper

A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines

2005-10-24
2005-01-3688
Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Technical Paper

A Study of the In-Nozzle Flow Characteristic of Valve Covered Orifice Nozzles for Gasoline Direct Injection

2005-10-24
2005-01-3684
For spark ignition engines, the most effective way to reduce the overall fuel consumption and CO2 emissions respectively is the implementation of gasoline direct injection technology. In comparison to the current wall and air guided systems, the direct injection system of the second generation - the spray guided DI- is the most promising one with respect to fuel economy and emission. In order to exploit its full potential, a thorough combustion process development regarding injector and spark plug design and their positioning within the combustion chamber is essential. Especially multihole injectors offer many degrees of freedom with regard to the nozzle shape and spray pattern. To reduce the development work and costs necessary to identify the ideal nozzle characteristic and spray pattern, reliable CFD models are necessary.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Soot Emission Behavior of A Common-Rail Diesel Engine during Steady and Non-Steady Operating Conditions by Means of Several Measuring Techniques

2005-05-11
2005-01-2154
In this work the influence of various engine load changes with different engine speeds on the soot particle concentrations and properties was investigated because these operating modes are well known for short but high soot emissions. To derive specific information on emission behavior of particle matters tests were carried out with the Two-Color-Method and the so called RAYLIX technique in a four-cylinder CR-Diesel engine. The Two-Color-Method (2CM) gives crank angle resolved information about soot formation and oxidation processes inside the combustion chamber of a single cylinder. The RAYLIX technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) and extinction measurements which enable simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean primary particle radii and number densities in the exhaust gas manifold of the same cylinder investigated by the Two-Color-Method.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement in Diesel Engines

2004-10-25
2004-01-2922
Contemporary diesel engines are high-tech power plants that provide high torques at very good levels of efficiency. By means of modern injecting-systems such as Common-Rail Injection, combustion noise and emissions could be influenced positively as well. Diesel engine are therefore used increasingly in top-range and sports cars. Today's production ECUs have no or only very low feedback regarding the process in the combustion chamber. As long as this data is missing, the design of the maps in the ECU can only be a compromise, since production tolerances and aging processes have to be considered in advance. Disturbances in the combustion process may not be detected at all. If more knowledge about the course of combustion is provided, especially the start of combustion (SOC), various operating parameters, such as the pilot injection quantity or the beginning of current feed to the injector, could be adjusted more precisely and individually for every cylinder.
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