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Journal Article

High Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection in Spark Ignition Engines - Efficiency Optimization through Detailed Process Analyses

2016-10-17
2016-01-2244
At part load and wide open throttle operation with stratified charge and lean mixture conditions the Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine offers similar efficiency levels compared to compression ignition engines The present paper reports on results of recent studies on the impact of the in-cylinder processes in DISI engines e. g. the injection, the in-cylinder flow, the mixture preparation and the ignition on the combustion, the energy conversion and the exhaust emission behavior. The analyses of the spray behavior, of the in-cylinder flow during compression as well as of the flame propagation have been carried out applying advanced optical measurement techniques. The results enable a targeted optimization of the combustion process with respect to engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. The benefits of an increase in fuel injection pressures up to 100 MPa are discussed.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations of a DISI Engine in Transient Operation with Regard to Particle and Gaseous Engine-out Emissions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1990
The investigation of transient engine operation plays a key role of the future challenges for individual mobility in terms of real driving emissions (RDE). A fundamental investigation of the transient engine operation requires the simultaneous application of measurement technologies for an integrated study of mixture formation, combustion process and emission formation. The major prerequisite is the combustion cycle and crank angle resolved analysis of the process for at least several individual consecutive combustion cycles during transient operation. The investigations are performed with a multi cylinder DISI engine at an Engine-in-the-Loop test bench, able to operate the engine in driving cycles as well as within target profiles (e.g. speed and torque profiles). The research project describes the methodology of analyzing elementary transient operational phases, (e.g. different variants of load steps).
Journal Article

Experimental Studies on the Occurrence of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged GDI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0753
In the present paper the results of a set of experimental investigations on LSPI are discussed. The ignition system of a test engine was modified to enable random spark advance in one of the four cylinders. LSPI sequences were successfully triggered and exhibited similar characteristics compared to regularly occurring pre-ignition. Optical investigations applying a high speed camera system enabling a visualization of the combustion process were performed. In a second engine the influence of the physical properties of the considered lubricant on the LSPI frequency was analyzed. In addition different piston ring assemblies have been tested. Moreover an online acquisition of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhaust gas was performed. The combination of these experimental techniques in the present study provided further insights on the development of LSPI sequences.
Technical Paper

Influence of High Frequency Ignition on the Combustion and Emission Behaviour of Small Two-Stroke Spark Ignition Engines

2013-10-15
2013-32-9144
The two-stroke SI engine is the predominant driving unit in applications that require a high power-to-weight ratio, such as handheld power tools. Regarding the latest regulations in emission limits the main development area is clearly a further reduction of the exhaust emissions. The emissions are directly linked to the combustion processes and the scavenging losses. The optimization of the combustion processes, which represents one of the most challenging fields of research, is still one of the most important keys to enhance the thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. Regarding future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines it is inevitable that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, like carbon dioxide, need to be reduced. As most small SI engines are carburetted and operate open loop, the mixture formation and the amount of residual gas differs from cycle to cycle [1].
Journal Article

Is a High Pressure Direct Injection System a Solution to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Small Two-Stroke Engine?

2013-10-15
2013-32-9143
Small gasoline engines are used in motorcycles and handheld machinery, because of their high power density, low cost and compact design. The reduction of hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption is an important factor regarding the upcoming emission standards and operational expenses. The scavenging process of the two-stroke engine causes scavenging losses. A reduction in hydrocarbon emissions due to scavenging losses can be achieved through inner mixture formation using direct injection (DI). The time frame for fuel vaporization is limited using two-stroke SI engines by the high number of revolutions. A high pressure DI system was used to offer fast and accurate injections. An injection pressure of up to 140 MPa was provided by a common rail system, built out of components normally used in automotive engineering. A standard electromagnetic injector is applied for the fuel injection. This injection unit is dimensioned for multi-point injections in diesel engines.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Composition on Exhaust Emissions of a DISI Engine during Catalyst Heating Operation

2013-10-14
2013-01-2571
Particle number measurements during different real world and legislative driving cycles show that catalyst heating, cold and transient engine operation cause increased particle number emissions. In this context the quality of mixture formation as a result of injector characteristics, in-cylinder flow, operation & engine parameters and fuel composition is a major factor. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the influence of different biogenic and alkylate fuels on the gaseous and particle number emission behavior during catalyst heating operation on a single-cylinder DISI engine. The engine is operated with a late ignition timing causing a high exhaust enthalpy flow to heat up the catalyst, a slightly lean global air fuel ratio to avoid high hydrocarbon emissions and a late injection right before the ignition to reduce the coefficient of variance of the indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Ignition Processes Using High Frequency Ignition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1633
High frequency ignition (HFI) and conventional transistor coil ignition (TCI) were investigated with an optically accessible single-cylinder research engine to gain fundamental understanding of the chemical reactions taking place prior to the onset of combustion. Instead of generating heat in the gap of a conventional spark plug, a high frequency / high voltage electric field is employed in HFI to form chemical radicals. It is generated using a resonant circuit and sharp metallic tips placed in the combustion chamber. The setup is optimized to cause a so-called corona discharge in which highly energized channels (streamers) are created while avoiding a spark discharge. At a certain energy the number of ionized hydrocarbon molecules becomes sufficient to initiate self-sustained combustion. HFI enables engine operation with highly diluted (by air or EGR) gasoline-air mixtures or at high boost levels due to the lower voltage required.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Spray-Induced Vortex Structures during Multiple Injections of a DISI Engine in Stratified Operation Using High-Speed-PIV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0563
Modern gasoline direct injection engines with spray-guided combustion processes require a stable and reliable fuel mixture formation as well as an optimal stratification at time of ignition. Due to the limited time for this process the temporal and spatial analysis of the in-cylinder flow field and its influence is of significant interest. The application of a piezo injector with outward opening nozzle and its capability to realize multiple injections within the compression stroke provides additional degrees of freedom for the stratified engine operation. To improve the performance of this combination a detailed knowledge of the in-cylinder flow field and its interaction with the spray propagation during and after multiple injections is essential. The flow field measurements were applied in an optical borescope single-cylinder research engine using a high-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV) setup.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Alcohol Type and Concentration in Alcohol-Blended Fuels on the Combustion and Emission of Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0038
The combustion processes optimization is one of the most important factors to enhancing thermal efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions of combustion engines [1; 2]. Future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines require that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, such as carbon dioxide, to be reduced. One possible way to reduce exhaust gas emissions from two-stroke small off-road engines (SORE) is to use biogenic fuels. Because of their nearly closed carbon dioxide circuit, the emissions of carbon dioxide decrease compared to the use of fossil fuels. Also biogenic fuels have a significant influence on the combustion process and thus the emissions of different exhaust gas components may be reduced. Besides greenhouse gases, several other exhaust gas components need to be reduced because of their toxicity to the human health. For example, aromatic hydrocarbons cause dangerous health problems, and can be reduced by using alkylate fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Emission Behaviour and Fuel Consumption of a Small Two-Stroke SI Chainsaw under Test-Bed- and Real In-Use Conditions

2012-10-23
2012-32-0070
The emission behaviour of an internal combustion engine under test-bed conditions shows differences to the emission behaviour under real in-use conditions. Because of this fact, the developers of combustion engines and the legislator are focussing on the measurement and optimization of real in-use emissions. To this day, the research, the adjustment of the carburettor and the legislation of small handheld engines is performed under test bench conditions, especially conditioned fuel pressure and temperature, as well as air temperature. Also the engines are laid out for two operation points: rated speed with full open throttle and idle speed. This test-procedure is used for all kinds of handheld off-road applications and does not consider the load profile of the different power tools. Especially applications with transient load profiles, for example chainsaws, work in more than two operating points in real use.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Flow Velocity in the Spark Plug Gap of a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine using Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

2011-11-08
2011-32-0529
The two-stroke SI engine remains the dominant concept for handheld power tools. Its main advantages are a good power-to-weight ratio, simple mechanical design and low production costs. Because of these reasons, the two-stroke SI engine will remain the dominant engine in such applications for the foreseeable future. Increasingly stringent exhaust emission laws, in conjunction with the drive for more efficiency, have made new scavenging and combustion processes necessary. The main foci are to reduce raw emissions of unburned hydrocarbons via intelligent guidance of the fresh air-fuel mixture and to improve performance to reduce specific emissions. The flow velocity in the electrode gap of the spark plug is of great interest for the ignition of the air-fuel-mixture and the early combustion phase of all kinds of SI engines. In these investigations, the flow velocity in the spark plug gap of a two-stroke gasoline engine with stratified scavenging was measured under various conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Heat Flux Analysis of an Automotive Diesel Engine in Steady-State Operation and During Warm-Up

2011-09-11
2011-24-0067
Advanced thermal management systems in passenger cars present a possibility to increase efficiency of current and future vehicles. However, a vehicle integrated thermal management of the combustion engine is essential to optimize the overall thermal system. This paper shows results of an experimental heat flux analysis of a state-of-the-art automotive diesel engine with common rail injection, map-controlled thermostat and split cooling system. Measurements on a climatic chamber engine test bench were performed to investigate heat fluxes and energy balance in steady-state operation and during engine warm-up from different engine start temperatures. The analysis includes the influence of the operating point and operating parameters like EGR rate, injection strategy and coolant temperature on the engine energy balance.
Journal Article

Effect of different nozzle geometries using Pure Rapeseed Oil in a modern Diesel engine on combustion and exhaust emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-1947
Rapeseed oil can be a possible substitute for fossil fuel in Diesel engines. Due to different physical properties of rapeseed oil like higher viscosity and higher compressibility compared to diesel fuel, rapeseed oil cannot be easily used in conventional Diesel engines without modifications. Especially incomplete combustion leads to deposits in the combustion chamber and higher exhaust gas emissions. These unfavorable characteristics are caused primarily by insufficient mixture preparation. The adjustment of the injection system will improve the mixture preparation and the combustion of a Diesel engine, operated with rapeseed oil. The nozzle geometry is the main parameter of the whole injection system chain to realize a better combustion process and so higher efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection Nozzle Hole Diameter on Highly Premixed and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion and Full Load Behavior

2010-10-25
2010-01-2109
Diesel engines face difficult challenges with respect to engine-out emissions, efficiency and power density as the legal requirements concerning emissions and fuel consumption are constantly increasing. In general, for a diesel engine to achieve low raw emissions a well-mixed fuel-air mixture, burning at low combustion temperatures, is necessary. Highly premixed diesel combustion is a feasible way to reduce the smoke emissions to very low levels compared to conventional diesel combustion. In order to reach both, very low NOX and soot emissions, high rates of cooled EGR are necessary. With high rates of cooled EGR the NOX formation can be suppressed almost completely. This paper investigates to what extent the trade-off between emissions, fuel consumption and power of a diesel engine can be resolved by highly premixed and low temperature diesel combustion using injection nozzles with reduced injection hole diameters and high pressure fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Two-Stroke SI Combustion with Simultaneous Cycle-Based Fuel Consumption Measurements

2010-09-28
2010-32-0061
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Formation and Oxidation of Soot Inside a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Advanced Laser-Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-0352
In this work the formation and oxidation of soot inside a direct injection spark ignition engine at different injection and ignition timing was investigated. In order to get two-dimensional data during the expansion stroke, the RAYLIX-technique was applied in the combustion chamber of an optical accessible single cylinder engine. This technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII) and extinction which enables simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean particle radii and number densities. These first investigations show that the most important source for soot formation during combustion are pool fires, i.e. liquid fuel burning on the top of the piston. These pool fires were observed under almost all experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurements in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0030
This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
Journal Article

Investigations on the Effects of the Ignition Spark with Controlled Autoignition (CAI)

2009-06-15
2009-01-1770
Controlled Autoignition (CAI) is a very promising technology for simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and engine-out emissions [3, 4, 9, 16]. But the operating range of this combustion mode is limited on the one hand by high pressure gradients with the subsequent occurrence of knocking, increasing NOX-emissions and cyclic variations, and on the other hand by limited operating stability due to low mixture temperatures. At higher loads the required amount of internal EGR decrease to reach self-ignition conditions decrease and hence the influence of the ignition spark gain. The timing of the ignition spark highly influence the combustion process at higher loads. With the ignition spark, pre-reactions are initialized with a defined heat release. Thus the location of inflammation and flame propagation can be strongly influenced and cyclic variations at higher loads can be reduced.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study to Assess the Soot Reduction Potential of Different In-Cylinder Methods and Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Systems for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4016
In this study different methods to reduce the soot emissions of Diesel engines were investigated and compared to obtain their soot reduction potential. Apart from investigations on the practically usable engine map area with so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion processes a new heterogeneous combustion processes was developed and investigated which offers significantly reduced soot emissions while still applicable in the entire engine map. For the HCCI experiments the emphasis was put on the achievable engine load range when using conventional injector nozzles which still allow a conventional heterogeneous engine operation.
Technical Paper

Application of Multifiber Optics in Handheld Power Tools with High Speed Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0060
When developing effective exhaust emission reduction measures, a better understanding of the complex working cycle in crankcase scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines. However, in a two-stroke gasoline engine detailed measurement and analysis of combustion data requires significantly more effort, when compared to a lower speed four-stroke engine. Particularly demanding are the requirements regarding the high speed (>10,000 rpm) which inevitably goes along with heavy vibrations and high temperatures of the air cooled cylinders. Another major challenge to the measuring equipment is the increased cleaning demand of the optical sensor surface due to the two-stroke gasoline mixture. In addition, the measuring equipment has to be adapted to the small size engines. Therefore, only a fiber optical approach can deliver insight into the cylinder for analyzing the combustion performance.
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