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Journal Article

Analysis of NOx Emissions during Crank-Start and Cold Fast-Idle in a GDI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0796
The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.
Journal Article

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of Cold Crank-Start in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0824
The first 3 cycles in the cold crank-start process at 20°C are studied in a GDI engine. The focus is on the dependence of the HC and PM/PN emissions of each cycle on the injection strategy and combustion phasing of the current and previous cycles. The PM/PN emissions per cycle decrease by more than an order of magnitude as the crank-start progresses from the 1st to the 3rd cycle, while the HC emissions stay relatively constant. The wall heat transfer, as controlled by the combustion phasing, during the previous cycles has a more significant influence on the mixture formation process for the current cycle than the amount of residual fuel. The results show that the rise in HC emissions caused by the injection spray interacting with the intake valves and piston crown is reduced as the cranking process progresses. Combustion phasing retard significantly reduces the PM emission. The HC emissions, however, are relatively not sensitive to combustion phasing in the range of interest.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1368
Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Technical Paper

Using Valve Timing and Exhaust Back Pressure to Improve Catalyst Warm-Up Time

2013-10-14
2013-01-2656
This work examines the effects of valve timing and back pressure on the engine out enthalpy flow which is critical to the light off of the catalyst. The engine behavior is observed under fast-idle condition using a turbocharged production direct injection spark ignition engine with variable cam phasing that could shift both the intake and exhaust valve timing by 50 deg. crank angle. The back pressure is adjusted by throttling the exhaust. The engine operates at a constant net indicated mean effective pressure of 2 bar. The valve timing effect is largely governed by the residual gas trapped. With increasing valve overlap, the exhaust enthalpy flow increases because of the increase in exhaust temperature due to a slower combustion, and of the increase in air and fuel flow to compensate for the lower efficiency due to the slower combustion. When the back pressure is increased, the engine through flow has to increase to compensate for the larger pumping loss.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Loss Mechanisms Associated with Engine Downsizing, Boosting and Compression Ratio Change

2013-04-08
2013-01-0929
The loss mechanisms associated with engine downsizing, boosting and compression ratio change are assessed. Of interest are the extents of friction loss, pumping loss, and crevice loss. The latter does not scale proportionally with engine size. These losses are deconstructed via a cycle simulation model which encompasses a friction model and a crevice loss model for engine displacement of 300 to 500 cc per cylinder. Boost pressure is adjusted to yield constant torque. The compression ratio is varied from 8 to 20. Under part load, moderate speed condition (1600 rpm; 13.4 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work reduces significantly with downsizing while the work loss associated with the crevice volume increases. At full load (1600 rpm; 43.6 Nm/cylinder brake torque), the pumping work is less significant. The crevice loss (normalized to the fuel energy) is essentially the same as in the part load case. The sensitivities of the respective loss terms to downsizing are reported.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Port Charge-Motion-Control-Valve on Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4013
The effects of the directed port flow produced by a Charge-Motion-Control-Valve (CMCV) on mixture preparation in a Port-Fuel-Injection engine were assessed under conditions typical of fast idle in a cold start process. The port fuel was found to comprise two components: a “valve” puddle (at the vicinity of the valve) that built up quickly, and that was mainly responsible for the delivery of the fuel to the cylinder charge; a “port” puddle located significantly upstream. The latter was mainly created by the reverse back flow process and built up slowly. Although the fuel amounts in these two components were roughly the same, the latter did not significantly interact with the fuel transport to the cylinder charge. The CMCV only weakly affected the purging or filling time of the valve puddle, hence the dynamics of the fuel delivery process was not materially affected.
Technical Paper

On HCCI Engine Knock

2007-07-23
2007-01-1858
Knock in a HCCI engine was examined by comparing subjective evaluation, recorded sound radiation from the engine, and cylinder pressure. Because HCCI combustion involved simultaneous heat release in a spatially large region, substantial oscillations were often found in the pressure signal. The time development of the audible signal within a knock cycle was different from that of the pressure trace. Thus the audible signal was not the attenuated transmission of the cylinder pressure oscillation but the sound radiation from the engine structure vibration excited by the initial few cycles of pressure oscillation. A practical knock limited maximum load point for the specific 2.3 L I4 engine under test (and arguably for engines of similar size and geometry) was defined at when the maximum rate of cycle-averaged pressure rise reached 5 MPa/ms.
Technical Paper

Effect of Air Temperature and Humidity on Gasoline HCCI Operating in the Negative-Valve-Overlap Mode

2007-04-16
2007-01-0221
The impact of intake air temperature and humidity on gasoline HCCI engine operation was assessed. The 2.3 L I4 production engine modified for single cylinder operation was controlled by using variable cam phasing on both the intake and exhaust valve in the negative-valve-overlap mode. Exhaust cam phasing was mainly used to control load, and intake cam phasing was mainly used to control combustion phasing. At stoichiometric condition, higher intake air temperature advanced combustion phasing and promoted knock, resulting in a 19% reduction of the Net Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (NIMEP) at the high load limit at 1500 rpm when intake temperature was changed from −10 to 100° C. Higher ambient humidity delayed combustion phasing. For stoichiometric operation, this delay allowed a small extension (a few tenths of a bar in NIMEP) in the high load limit when the moisture concentration was changed from 3 to 30 g/m3 (corresponding to 10-100% relative humidity at 28° C).
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

2007-01-23
2007-01-0044
A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties on First Cycle Fuel Delivery in a SI Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3057
The fuel property effects on first cycle mixture preparation were assessed by measuring the in-cylinder fuel equivalence ratio (Φ) with a Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) using four different fuels. The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) was varied between -6°C and 80°C. The Φ values increased with both ECT and amount of injected fuel mass. The delivery fraction (fraction of the injected fuel that went into the combustible charge), however, increased with ECT but decreased with increase in injected fuel. The minimum required injected mass to produce a combustible mixture increased sharply with decrease in ECT below 20°C. There was, however, no single fuel parameter that would correlate with the measurements over the entire temperature range. Instead, the minimum required injected mass correlated to different distillation points on the ASTM distillation curve; e.g. at ECT of -6°C, it correlated to T20; at 40°C, it correlated to T50.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Cam Phasing on First Cycle Fuel Delivery and HC Emissions in an SI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1852
A strategy to facilitate the mixture preparation process in PFI engines is to delay the Intake Valve Opening (IVO) by shifting the cam phasing so that the cylinder pressure is sub-atmospheric when the valve opens. The physics of the effect are discussed in terms of the pressure differential between the manifold and the cylinder, and the resulting flow and charge temperature history. The effect was evaluated by measuring the equivalence ratio of the trapped charge and the exhaust HC emissions in the first cycle of cranking in a 2.4L engine. When the IVO timing was changed from 18° BTDC to 21° ATDC, the in-cylinder fuel equivalence ratio increased by approximately 10%. This increase was attributed mainly to the enrichment of the charge by displacing the leaner mixture at the top of the cylinder in the period between BDC and IVC. The exhaust HC, however, increased by 40%. No conclusive explanation was established for this increase in HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation and Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in the First Cycle of SI Engine Cranking

2002-10-21
2002-01-2805
The mixture preparation and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors for a single-cylinder port-fuel-injection SI engine were examined in an engine/dynamometer set up that simulated the first cycle of cranking. The engine was motored continuously at a fixed low speed with the ignition on, and fuel was injected every 8 cycles. Unlike the real engine cranking process, the set up provided a well controlled and repeatable environment to study the cranking process. The parameters were the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT), speed, and the fuel injection pulse width. The in-cylinder and exhaust HC were measured simultaneously with two Fast-response Flame Ionization Detectors. A large amount of injected fuel (an order of magnitude larger than the normal amount that would produce a stoichiometric mixture in a warm-up engine) was required to form a combustible mixture at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions Behaviors in Stopping and Restarting

2002-10-21
2002-01-2804
Engine Hydrocarbon (HC) emissions behaviors in the shut down and re-start processes were examined in a production 4-cylinder 2.4 L engine. Depending on when the power to the ECU was cut off relative to the engine events, there could be two or three mis-fired cylinders (i.e. cylinders with fuel injected but no ignition). The total HC pumped out by the engine into the catalyst in the stopping process was ∼ 4 mg (approximately equaled to the amount of one injection at idle condition). Because the size of the catalyst was larger than the total exhaust volume in the stopping process, this HC was not observed at the catalyst exit. The catalyst temperature was also not affected. When the engine was purged after shut down (by cranking the engine with the injectors and ignition disconnected), the total exit HC was 33 mg. In a restart 90 minutes after shut down, the integrated amount of HC emissions due to residual fuel from the stopping process was 16 mg.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3587
The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Fuel Metering Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions and Engine Stability During Cranking and Start-up in a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2836
A cycle by cycle analysis of engine behavior during the first few cycles of cranking and start-up was performed on a production four-cylinder engine. Experiments were performed to elucidate the effects of initial engine position (rest position after last engine shut-down), first and second cycle fueling, engine temperature, and spark timing on fuel delivery to the cylinder, engine-out Hydrocarbon (EOHC) emissions, and Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEPg). The most important effect of the piston starting position is on the first firing cycle engine rpm, which influences the IMEPg through combustion phasing. Because of the low rpm values for the first cycle, combustion is usually too advanced with typical production engine ignition timing. For both the hot start and the ambient start, the threshold for firing is at an in-cylinder air equivalence ratio (λ) of 1.1.
Technical Paper

Throttle Movement Rate Effects on Transient Fuel Compensation in a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1937
Throttle ramp rate effects on the in-cylinder fuel/air (F/A) excursion was studied in a production engine. The fuel delivered to the cylinder per cycle was measured in-cylinder by a Fast Response Flame Ionization detector. Intake pressure was ramped from 0.4 to 0.9 bar. Under slow ramp rates (∼1 s ramp time), the Engine Electronic Control (EEC) unit provided the correct compensation for delivering a stoichiometric mixture to the cylinder throughout the transient. At fast ramp rates (a fraction of a second ramps), a lean spike followed by a rich one were observed. Based on the actual fuel injected in each cycle during the transient, a x-τ model using a single set of x and τ values reproduced the cycle-to-cycle in-cylinder F/A response for all the throttle ramp rates.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Air/Fuel Ratio Controller for SI Engine Throttle Transients

1999-03-01
1999-01-0552
An adaptive air/fuel ratio controller for SI engine throttle transient was developed. The scheme is based on an event- based, single- parameter fuel dynamics model. A least- square- error algorithm with an active forgetting factor was used for parameter identifications. A one- step- look- ahead controller was designed to maintain the desired air/fuel ratio by canceling the fuel dynamics with the controller setting updated adaptively according to the identified parameters. When implemented on a Ford Ztech engine and tested under a set of throttle- transient operations, the adaptive controller learned quickly and performed well.
Technical Paper

Design and Demonstration of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating in a Stratified-EGR Mode

1998-02-23
980122
This paper describes the development of a spark ignition engine operating in a stratified-EGR mode at part load. The concept is to reduce the pumping loss with high levels of EGR while maintaining stable combustion via charge stratification. Since the engine operates stoichiometrically, the ability to control NOx emissions by the three-way catalyst is retained. The configuration of introducing the stoichiometric fresh mixture to the center portion of the combustion chamber with the EGR gas on the two sides is visualized in a transparent engine using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and Mie scattering. Visualization results showed that the stratification between air/fuel mixture and EGR gas was relatively well established during the intake stroke. There was, however, significant mixing in the late part of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Oil Layer Mechanism to the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1997-10-01
972892
A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.
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