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Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Study on Frictional Behavior of AA 6XXX with Three Lube Conditions in Sheet Metal Forming

2018-04-03
2018-01-0810
Light-weighting vehicles cause an increase in Aluminum Alloy stamping processes in the Automotive Industry. Surface finish and lubricants of aluminum alloy (AA) sheet play an important role in the deep drawing processes as they can affect the friction condition between the die and the sheet. This paper aims to develop a reliable and practical laboratory test method to experimentally investigate the influence of surface finish, lubricant conditions, draw-bead clearances and pulling speed on the frictional sliding behavior of AA 6XXX sheet metal. A new double-beads draw-bead-simulator (DBS) system was used to conduct the simulated test to determine the frictional behavior of an aluminium alloy with three surface lubricant conditions: mill finish (MF) with oil lube, electric discharge texture (EDT) finish with oil lube and mill finish (MF) with dry lube (DL).
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Distribution in a Hydroformed Advanced High Strength Steel Component: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0803
Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
Journal Article

Validation of GISSMO Model for Fracture Prediction of a Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0107
Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), due to their significantly higher strength than the conventional high-strength steels, are increasingly used in the automotive industry to meet future safety and fuel economy requirements. Unlike conventional steels, the properties of AHSS can vary significantly due to the different steelmaking processes and their fracture behaviors should be characterized. In crash analysis, a fracture model is often integrated in the simulations to predict fracture during crash events. In this article, crash simulations including a fracture criterion are conducted for a third-generation AHSS, that is, 980GEN3. A generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA is employed to evaluate the fracture predictability in the crash simulations.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Strain on Edge Cracking Limit for Advanced High-Strength Steel Using Digital Image Correlation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0394
Advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is gaining popularity in the automotive industry due to its higher final part strength with the better formability compares to the conventional steel. However, the edge fracture occurs during the forming procedure for the pre-strained part. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the effect of pre-strain on edge cracking limit needs to be studied. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC), as an accurate optical method, is adopted for the strain measurement to determining the edge cracking limit. Sets of the wide coupons are pre-strained to obtain the samples at different pre-strain level. The pre-strain of each sample is precisely measured during this procedure using DIC. After pre-straining, the half dog bone samples are cut from these wide coupons. The edge of the notch in the half dog bone samples is created by the punch with 10% clearance for the distinct edge condition.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Technical Paper

Dimension Study of Punched Hole Using Conical Tipped Punches

2016-04-05
2016-01-0364
Dimensional problems for punched holes on a sheet metal stamping part include being undersized and oversized. Some important relationships among tools and products, such as the effect of conical punch tip angle, are not fully understood. To study this effect, sheets of AA6016 aluminum and BH210 steel were punched by punches with different conical tip angles. The test method and test results are presented. The piercing force and withdrawing force when using conical punches were also studied. The results indicate that the oversize issue for a punched hole in a stamped panel is largely due to the combination of the conical tip effect and the stretching-release effect.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0594
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Chassis Design and Component Testing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1237
The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction. As part of this project, several automotive chassis components were selected for development and evaluation on the MMLV C/D segment passenger sedan.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Metal Gainers for Advanced High Strength Steel Flanging

2014-04-01
2014-01-0985
Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Strain Distribution for Hole Expansion with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0993
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
Journal Article

AHSS Shear Fracture Predictions Based on a Recently Developed Fracture Criterion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0988
One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0986
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
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